1. 85 or 84 BC, according to the chronology of Suetonius, which makes the year of Caesar’s birth 100 BC The arguments in favour of 102 are however very strong.

  2. By Marius and Cinna, consuls in 86; see Velleius Paterculus, Historiae Romanae 2.43.1.

  3. A chaplet of oak leaves, given for saving the life of a fellow-citizen, the Victoria Cross of antiquity.

  4. See Julius, 74.1.

  5. The festival of Bona Dea, from which all men were excluded.

  6. The towns beyond the river Po, such as Verona, Comum, and Cremona, wished to obtain the rights of citizenship, which had been given to many of the Italian towns at the close of the Social War (89⁠–⁠88 BC).

  7. Forum ornare was the technical term for the display there by the aediles of the material to be used in their public shows.

  8. As iudex quaestionis, an office held by Caesar between the aedileship and the praetorship.

  9. As iudex perduellionis, or duumvir perduellionis, one of a commission of two men appointed to try cases of high treason. Of these one was selected by lot (sorte ductus) to conduct the trial, if one were necessary, and pass sentence. An appeal was allowed and the duumvir then brought the case before the comitia centuriata (in the regal period before the comitia curiata). See Livy 1.26.5 ff.; Cicero, Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo 4.

  10. As governor of Egypt; see Julius, 11.

  11. Namely, Gnaeus Pompeius.

  12. When the consuls went to the Capitol to offer sacrifice at the commencement of their term of office (on January 1), their friends escorted them to the temple and back to their homes. Caesar took advantage of the absence of the aristocrats for his attack on Catulus.

  13. Novius seems to have been quaesitor, a special commissioner appointed to conduct the investigation (quaestio) of the Catilinarian conspiracy; perhaps we should read quaesitorem.

  14. That is, without waiting for the decrees of the senate which formally confirmed the appointments of the new governors, and provided them with funds and equipment.

  15. If silvae callesque should stand in the text, it is used in a different sense from calles in Tacitus Annals 4.27. It seems to designate provinces where the duties of the governor would be confined to guarding the mountain-pastures and keeping the woods free from brigands. The senate would not run the risk of letting Caesar secure a province involving the command of an army. Cf. note on Julius, 24.1.

  16. Business could be interrupted or postponed at Rome by the announcement of an augur or a magistrate that he had seen a flash of lightning or some other adverse sign; sometimes an opponent merely announced that he would “watch the skies” for such omens.

  17. Torrentius put per iocum after signarent, but such jesting would not be tolerated in actual legal documents.

  18. Through a special commission of twenty men.

  19. By making a speech of several hours’ duration; Gellius, Noctes Atticae 4.10.8. The senate arose in a body and escorted Cato to prison, and Caesar was forced to release him.

  20. For his conduct during the war with Mithridates.

  21. That is, after the close of the business day, an indication of the haste with which the adoption was rushed through.

  22. Used in a double sense, the second unmentionable.

  23. A Celtic word meaning a crested lark, (Pliny, Natural History 11.37) which was the device on the helmets of the legion.

  24. Roman measure; about 3106 English miles, taking the Roman foot (296 mm) as 0.97 English.

  25. Sestertius: A Roman coin, originally of silver, but later of bronze, equal to 2½ asses, or one-fourth of a denarius. It was equal to 2½d. or 5 cents, and is the unit in which sums of money were most commonly reckoned by the Romans.

  26. When ordinarily they would be put to death.

  27. That is, in correcting the bill after it had been passed and filed, as explained in the following sentence.

  28. When the senate passed a decree that Caesar should disband his army before a given date, the tribunes Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius exercised their privilege and vetoed it (Caesar, Civil Wars 1.2.6⁠–⁠7); not only did the senate disregard the veto, but the tribunes were obliged to seek safety in flight (Caesar, Civil Wars 1.5.1⁠–⁠2).

  29. Cicero, De Officiis 3.82.

  30. Euripides, Phoenissae, 542 f.

  31. Way.

  32. Knights (as well as senators) had the privilege of wearing a gold ring, and must possess an estate of 400,000 sesterces.

  33. Per tumultum is a strong expression for contra legem or extra ordinem, since the Lex Sempronia provided that the consuls be appointed to their provinces before election; cf. Julius, 19.2.

  34. The prandium was the first substantial meal of the day, taken about noon; the translation “dinner” is used advisedly.

  35. In token of his restoration to the rank of knight, which he forfeited by appearing on the stage; see Julius, 33.

  36. The first fourteen rows above the orchestra, reserved for the knights by the law of L. Roscius Otho, tribune of the commons, 67 BC.

  37. Euripus, the strait between Euboea and Boeotia, was used also as a common noun, meaning “a ditch” or “canal.”

  38. The year had previously consisted of 355 days, and the deficiency of about eleven days was made up by inserting an intercalary month of twenty-two or twenty-three days after February.

  39. Plebeians, connected in some way with the treasury.

  40. I.e., of the commons, with reference to the distribution of grain.

  41. The derivation of parricida is uncertain, but it cannot come from pater and caedo. In early times it meant wilful murder of a freeman; Lex XII Tab. ap. Fest. s.v., si qui hominem liberum dolo sciens morti duit, paricidas esto; later, it was associated by popular etymology with pater and caedo, and used also in the modern sense of the word.

  42. Epilepsy, called morbus comitialis, because an attack was regarded as sufficient cause for the postponement of elections, or other public business. Sometimes a seizure was feigned for political reasons.

  43. Latus clavus, the broad purple stripe, is also applied to a tunic with the broad stripe. All senators had the right to wear this; the peculiarity in Caesar’s case consisted in the long fringed sleeves.

  44. While a girdle was commonly worn with the ordinary tunic, it was not usual to wear one with the latus clavus; Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria XI.3.138. The looseness of the girdle was an additional peculiarity.

  45. The word play on tertia (pars) and Tertia, daughter of Servilia, as well as on the two senses of deducta, is quite untranslatable. The first meaning is given in the translation, and the second is implied in the following sentence. Cf. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.2.5.

  46. M. Actorius Naso; see Julius, 9.3.

  47. The words liberorum quaerendorum causa are a legal formula indicating that the purpose of marriage is to beget legal heirs.

  48. Caesar was in reality propraetor, but proconsul (pro consule) is sometimes used of the governor of a province, regardless of his rank.

  49. Apparently about half the usual price.

  50. Cicero, Brutus 261.

  51. That is, a speech in which he competed with other advocates for the right to conduct a prosecution.

  52. Cicero, Brutus 262.

  53. Caesar, The Gallic Wars VIII, preface, 5⁠–⁠6.

  54. That is, Caesar reduced his reports to book form. If the book was a roll, the writing was arranged in columns, parallel with the edges (or long sides) of the roll. If it was a codex, several sheets were folded and fastened together and the writing was arranged on each page in one or two columns. His predecessors merely took a sheet, or sheets, and wrote from side to side and from top to bottom, without columns or margins.

  55. Through Gaius Volusenus (Caes. B. G. 4.21.1). Suetonius’s words per se do not necessarily imply that Caesar went to Britain himself for this purpose.

  56. The significance of this name can only be conjectured. Salutio was an actor of mimes, mentioned by Pliny, Natural History 7.10 and 35.2.

  57. The standard of the legion was a silver eagle with outstretched wings, mounted on a pole which had a sharp point at the other end, so that it could be set firmly in the ground.

  58. Rostratae naves, ships of war provided with brazen beaks (rostra) or rams.

  59. Probably some woodcutter’s hut; deversorium means ‘inn, lodging.’

  60. Catullus 29 and 57.

  61. See Julius, 1.2.

  62. At the theatre.

  63. For carrying his statue among those of the gods.

  64. Playing on the double meaning of cor, also regarded as the seat of intelligence.

  65. That is, “make me restore the republic.”

  66. The white fillet was emblematic of royalty.

  67. With a pun on Rex as a Roman name; cf. Horace, Horatii Flacci Sermonum 1.7, etc.

  68. The college of fifteen priests (quindecimviri sacris faciundis) in charge of the Sybilline books.

  69. Bonum factum (sit) was a formula prefixed to edicts, here used in jest; cf. the similar formulas in proposals to the senate, Augustus, 58.2, Caligula, 15.3.

  70. See note on Julius, 45.3.

  71. The pons suffragiorum, a temporary bridge of planks over which the voters passed one by one, to cast their ballots; Cicero, Epistularum ad Atticum I.14; Ovid, Fasti, V.634.

  72. Properly said of a temple; according to Florus, Epitome of Roman History 4.2.91; one of the honours bestowed on Caesar was fastigium in domo; cf. Plutarch, Caesar, LXIII.

  73. Possibly “from behind,” though it is hard to see how a wound paulo infra iugulum could have been dealt from that position. Aversum has better mss. authority than adversum, is a priori more probable, and is supported by Plutarch’s version; but it may mean “turned away.”

  74. A pointed instrument of bone or metal, for writing on waxen tablets.

  75. To inherit a share of his estate in the event of the death of the heirs in the first degree or their refusal to accept the inheritance; it was often a mere compliment.

  76. Cf. the apparition at the Rubicon; Julius, 32.

  77. Caesar was beloved by the Jews, not only because he had overthrown Pompey, who had violated their Holy of Holies, but because of many acts of kindness besides.

  78. Cyropedeia, 8.7.

  79. About an hour before sunset.

  80. A term applied to the plebeian families in the senate enrolled in addition to the patricians.

  81. In his Memoirs; see Augustus, 85.1.

  82. Cicero, Epistularum ad Quintum Fratrem 1.1.21.

  83. Quintus Cicero was really propraetor; see note on Julius, 54.1.

  84. Imagines were waxen masks of ancestors of noble (i.e., senatorial) rank, kept in the hall (atrium) of their descendants.

  85. See Julius, 20.3, note.

  86. According to the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae s.v. collybus, Suetonius misunderstood Cassius, who used collybus of a kind of cake.

  87. I.e. Hadrian.

  88. Annales, 502, Vahlen.

  89. Since the time of Sulla only senators were eligible for the position of tribune.

  90. Cicero Epistularum ad Familiares 11.20.1; according to Velleius Paterculus, Historiae Romanae 2.62.6, Cicero punned on the double meaning of tollo, “raise” and “put out of the way.”

  91. A game still common in Italy, in which the contestants thrust out their fingers (micare digitis), the one naming correctly the number thrust out by his opponent being the winner.

  92. The term applied to a victorious general by his soldiers.

  93. See note on Julius, 39.2.

  94. The sacred precinct at Alexandria (τὸ καλούμενον Σῆμα, ὅ περίβολος ἧν, Strabo, 17.1.8) containing the tombs of Alexander and of the kings.

  95. The nomenclator (nomenculator) was a slave whose duty it was to remind his master, or mistress, of the names of persons.

  96. Applied to expeditions commanded by others, since as commander-in-chief he took the auspices before the army set out.

  97. Crassus lost his standards at the battle of Carrhae in 53, and Antony through the defeat of his lieutenants in 40 and 36 BC.

  98. In the reign of Numa, and in 235 BC, after the first Punic war.

  99. The ovation was a lesser triumph, in which the general entered the city on foot, instead of in a chariot drawn by four horses (whence the term triumphus curulis), and with other differences described by Gellius, Noctes Atticae 5.6.

  100. That is, executed every tenth man, selected by lot.

  101. Instead of the usual rations of wheat.

  102. Carrying the pole to measure off the camp, or clods for building the rampart, was the work of common soldiers; hence degrading for officers.

  103. Cf. Julius, 67.2.

  104. That is, he kept them apart from the rest in the companies in which they were first enrolled.

  105. The phalerae were discs or plates of metal attached to a belt or to the harness of horses.

  106. Se praecipitaverit means “hurled himself headlong,” perhaps into the Tiber; more probably from some high place such as the Tarpeian Rock, or the roof of a building.

  107. See Augustus, 101.

  108. Suetonius is brief to the point of obscurity. The idea seems to be that the intentions of Augustus in establishing the principate, and the effect of the new regime on the public welfare, were equally good.

  109. Latericiam is strictly “of sun-dried brick.”

  110. See Julius, 71.

  111. Salus: Safety, worshipped as a goddess. The augurium Salutis was an inquiry whether prayers might be offered for the welfare of the State. It could be made only in time of peace. See also Dio, Roman History 37.24.

  112. Exigere is the technical term for making weights and measures correspond with the standards in charge of the aediles; see CIL XIV.4124.1, 2; X.8067.2; etc.

  113. According to Richter, Topographie von Rom, pp. 229, the regia was the main door, leading from the stage of the theatre to the colonnade.

  114. The ergastula were prisons for slaves, who were made to work in chains in the fields.

  115. Collegia, or guilds, of workmen were allowed and were numerous; not infrequently they were a pretext for some illegal secret organization.

  116. Sordibus refers especially to the mourning garb in which it was usual for the accused to appear in public.

  117. That is, if he failed to win his suit, he should suffer the penalty that would have been inflicted on the defendant, if he had been convicted.

  118. Men whose property amounted to 200,000 sesterces, or half of a knight’s estate.

  119. Parricides were sewn up in a sack with a dog, a cock, a snake, and a monkey, and thrown into the sea or a river. The word is here used in its modern sense; cf. note on Julius, 42.3.

  120. These consisted of various immunities, especially those connected with the ius trium liberorum.

  121. Orcivi or Orcini, “freedmen by the grace of Orcus,” were slaves set free by their master’s will. The Orcivi senatores were those admitted by Mark Antony under pretence that they had been named in the papers left by Caesar.

  122. Cf. Julius, 20.1.

  123. A very ancient tribunal, consisting at first of 105 members, three from each tribe, but later of 180. It sat in the Basilica Julia, with a spear (hasta), the ancient symbol of Quiritary ownership, planted before it. It was divided into four chambers, which usually sat separately, but sometimes altogether, or in two divisions.

  124. The decemviri stlitibus iudicandis.

  125. See note on Augustus, 22.

  126. That is, were so old or infirm that they could not ride, or would cut a sorry figure if they did.

  127. See note on Augustus, 10.2.

  128. See note on Julius, 39.2, and cf. Augustus, 14.

  129. Cf. Julius, 41.

  130. Augustus was a member of the latter because of his connection with the Octavian family; of the former, through his adoption into the Julian gens.

  131. That is, even by iusta libertas, which conferred citizenship. Slaves who had been punished for crimes (facinora) or disgraceful acts (flagitia) became on manumission dediticii, “prisoners of war.”

  132. Virgil Aeneid 1.282.

  133. Congiarium, strictly a distribution of oil (from congius, a liquid measure) came to be used of any largess.

  134. The tesserae nummulariae were small tablets or round hollow balls of wood, marked with numbers. They were distributed to the people instead of money and entitled the holder to receive the sum inscribed upon them. Grain, oil, and various commodities were distributed by similar tesserae; cf. Augustus, 40.2; Nero, 11; Domitian, 4.

  135. Cf. Julius, 39.1.

  136. Cf. Julius, 39.2.

  137. The auditorium was divided horizontally into three parts: ima (prima), media, and summa (ultima) cavea.

  138. This puzzling statement is thus explained by Baumgarten-Crusius: “i.e. ex aedibus proxime adjacentibus, unde prospectus erat in Circum. Coenacula autem in summis aedibus esse solebant. Idem narrat Dio 57.11 de Tiberio: τοὺς τῶν ἵππων ἀγῶνας ἐξ οἰκίας καὶ αὐτὸς τῶν ἀπελευθέρων τινὸς πολλάκις ἑώρα.”

  139. Pulvinar was originally a sacred couch for a god. The honour was given to Julius Caesar (see Julius, 76.1) and the term was later applied, as here, to the place reserved for the emperor and his family; cf. Claudius, 4.3.

  140. That is, given at Rome in the Greek language and dress. Or Graeco certamini may mean “a contest in Greece.”

  141. Those of Pompey, Balbus, and Marcellus.

  142. That is, his middle finger, infamis digitus; it implied a charge of obscenity; cf. Caligula, 56.2.

  143. That is, appointed them to the offices of tribunus cohortis, praefectus alae, and tribunus legionis, usually open only to knights.

  144. A limited citizenship, taking its name from the old Latin cities and varying in different cases and at different times.

  145. Diploma, strictly any document written on a two-leaved tablet, is used specially of those which secured to travellers the use of the public post (see Augustus, 49.3) and other privileges; cf. Cicero Epistularum Ad Familiares 6.12.

  146. Dominus, “master,” in the time of the Republic indicated the relation between master and slaves. Tiberius also shrank from it (Tiberius, 27), and it was first adopted by Caligula and Domitian. From the time of Trajan it was usual in the sense of “Lord” or “Sire.”

  147. That is, they did not make a morning call on him, as in other days.

  148. See Augustus, 35.1.

  149. The Romans in their wills often express their opinion freely about public men and affairs; cf. Augustus, 66, and Cassius Dio, 58.25, where it is said that Fulcinius Tiro, who died in prison, bitterly assailed Tiberius in his will.

  150. The movable seats provided for the advocates, witnesses, etc.

  151. The custom of defending an accused person by a general eulogy of his character was forbidden by Pompey in his third consulship (Dio, 40.52), but was nevertheless resorted to, even by Pompey himself (Dio, 40.55).

  152. September 22 and 23.

  153. Probably of the scribes and other minor officials.

  154. One’s tutelary divinity, or familiar spirit, closely identified with the person himself.

  155. The form of purchase consisted in thrice touching a balance (libra) with a penny (as), in the presence of the praetor.

  156. A record of the events of the imperial household. The custom of keeping such a daybook apparently dated from the time of Augustus. See Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners (English Translation), IV, 56.

  157. The host usually occupied the summus locus on the imus lectus.

  158. Ancient divisions of the citizens for political purposes. In cases of adoption the curiae were represented by thirty lictors, presided over by the pontifex maximus. This form of adoption was usual with adults; cf. Augustus, 64.1.

  159. Pandataria.

  160. Planasia.

  161. Iliad 3.40, where the line is addressed by Hector to Paris, with the verbs in the second person.

  162. See Augustus, 47, at the beginning.

  163. As well as Salvidienus.

  164. That is, while a private citizen could quarrel and make up with his friends, the emperor’s position made his anger fatal.

  165. That is to say, holding the highest place in the ordo (senatorius, equestris, plebeius) of which he was a member.

  166. Cf. Augustus, 56.1 and the note.

  167. A double wordplay on orbem, “round drum” and “world,” and temperat, “beats” and “sways.”

  168. Probably referring to Livia.

  169. The choragus at Athens had charge of the costuming and stage setting of plays. Hence the meaning is here “when they had found someone to make them up.”

  170. According to some, the choragus; others regard it as the name of a place.

  171. Corinthiarius: coined in jest on the analogy of argentarius; used in inscr. of slaves in charge of the vasa Corinthia.

  172. Cf. Augustus, 41.1.

  173. When the freedom of the Saturnalia justified it.

  174. When only aces appeared, the throw was called canis; when all the dice turned up different numbers, Venus.

  175. The “five-day” festival of Minerva, March 20⁠–⁠25.

  176. Commonly called peperino, a hard grey volcanic stone with black nodules resembling peppercorns.

  177. Cf. Augustus, 82.1.

  178. With reference to the study of Archimedes, or perhaps to the general use of such elevated rooms in Syracuse.

  179. “Little workshop;” a diminutive from τέχνη.

  180. Opposed to vestis forensis or forensia (vestimenta); cf. Vitellius, 8.1.

  181. The cena recta was a regular dinner, at which the guests reclined on couches at a table, contrasted with sportula, an informal meal (Claudius, 21.4) or a distribution of food. See Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners (English translation), IV pp. 77 ff.

  182. See Augustus, 72.2.

  183. Tellers of marvellous tales; cf. Juvenal 15.16, and Mayor ad loc. Doubtless the same as the fabulatores, Augustus, 78.2, below.

  184. See Augustus, 31.5 and note; some think that the reference is to the Regia in the Forum.

  185. That is, grapes suited for eating and not for making wine; cf. Epigrams of Martial 13.22; Columella, De Re Rustica 3.2.

  186. Like an acid wine.

  187. That is, without a blanket over his feet, because he had his shoes on.

  188. Lucubratoriam, “for working by lamplight.”

  189. The so-called “Roman nose.”

  190. Roman measure; a little less than five feet seven inches (5.58) English.

  191. Ursa major, Charles’s Wain, the Great Dipper.

  192. Apparently a form of poultice; some read habenarum and explain as a kind of truss.

  193. Cf. Horace, Epistles 1.15.2⁠–⁠3.

  194. Cf. Augustus, 72.1, note 177.

  195. Albulae aquae were the sulphur springs which flow into the Anio between Rome and Tivoli (Tibur).

  196. The pila was a small hard ball. Three players stood at the three points of a triangle (whence the game was called trigon) and passed the ball from one to the other. A skilful player used his left hand as well as his right.

  197. The folliculus was a large light ball. The players wore a guard on the right arm, with which they struck the ball, as in the Italian gioco del pallone.

  198. Many games were played with nuts; cf. Horace, Horatii Flacci Sermonum 2.3.171, Epigrams of Martial 5.84, etc.

  199. See Augustus, 81 at the end.

  200. Brutus published a eulogy of Cato in 46 BC; cf. Cicero Epistularum ad Atticum 12.21.

  201. Evidently two archaizing grammarians of the day.

  202. See De Grammaticis, X, at the end.

  203. Thus characterized in contrast with the studied simplicity of the Attic school of orators.

  204. Cato: The great-grandson of Cato the Censor (234⁠–⁠149 BC). A type of austere virtue.

  205. Cf. Catullus 67.21, languidior tenera beta. All these words, which Augustus is said to have used, are colloquialisms or slang, and the exact form and derivation of many of them are uncertain.

  206. Since sumus was originally enclitic, the forms simus, sumus may have represented the sound between u and i in maximus, maxumus, etc. Or simus may have been formed on the analogy of agimus and similar forms.

  207. Domuos is the earlier form of the genitive, with the suffix -os; domus the later, with the suffix -s. There was no form domos, and if Augustus used it, he probably did so on the analogy of domos⁠—domus in the accusative plural.

  208. Cf. Julius, 56.6⁠–⁠7, and Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 17.9.1⁠–⁠5.

  209. Religiones includes both religious belief and regard for omens and portents.

  210. Pliny, Natural History II.55, says that the laurel tree (cf. Tiberius, 69) and the seal are never struck by lightning; and also that lightning never goes more than five feet below the ground.

  211. Augustus, 29.3.

  212. This is not in accordance with the emperor’s character (cf. Augustus, 57), and Suetonius may have confused him with Caligula; see Caligula, 42. Yet there are records of many such acts of humility to propitiate Nemesis; see Casaubon ad loc.

  213. The Roman month was divided into periods of eight days, lettered in the Calendar from A to H. The last of these, every ninth day (nundinae) according to the Roman reckoning, was a market day.

  214. Because of its resemblance to non is (from eo); cf. Cicero De Divinatione 2.84; or perhaps merely because it contained non.

  215. Into the Eleusinian mysteries of Ceres.

  216. The decree was not complete until this was done; cf. Julius, 28.3.

  217. I.e. “Discourses about the Gods.” Aristotle wrote a work with the same title.

  218. The genius, or familiar spirit (see note on Augustus, 60), was often represented by a serpent, and those of husband and wife by two serpents; e.g. in Pompeian frescoes.

  219. To avoid profanation of the sacred rites.

  220. Otherwise unknown; Müller would read Caesarem Drusum. Stahr believes that the reference is to the Eulogy in Augustus, 100.3.

  221. Apparently another name for the via Appia; see CIL I.1291.

  222. Instead of kissing him directly.

  223. See note on Julius, 15.

  224. Marked by the broad purple stripe (latus clavus). Augustus was not yet a senator, but the privilege of wearing the laticlave was doubtless one of the honours conferred on him by Caesar.

  225. Prosper (εὐτυχής, “fortunate”).

  226. Victor (νικῶν).

  227. The lustrum was a sacrifice of purification, made every five years by one of the censors, after the completion of the census, or enumeration of the Roman people. The sacrifice consisted of the suovetaurilia, the offering of a pig, a sheep, and a bull. Lustrum was also applied to the five-year period.

  228. The pallium was the distinctive dress of the Greeks, as the toga was of the Romans.

  229. Greek youths between the ages of eighteen and that of full citizenship, who had regular gymnastic training as a part of their education. The Greek training survived in Capreae, which until recently (see Augustus, 92.2) had belonged to Naples.

  230. The City of Do-Nothings. There is no island “near Capreae,” and “the neighbouring island of Capreae” is meaningless; if the text is sound, Suetonius is careless, or we must take Capreis as a locative, and regard vicinam as used in a partitive sense like reliquus, primus, etc.

  231. Κτίστης, the Greek name for the founder of a city or colony.

  232. Beneventum; Augustus, 97.3.

  233. I.e. open through weakness.

  234. Or closed.

  235. See Claudius, 6.1.

  236. Augustus and Augusta, but Tiberius did not assume the title until it was conferred on him by the senate; Dio 57.2⁠–⁠3.

  237. See note on Julius, 83.2.

  238. See Augustus, 64.1.

  239. Probably those with which he was connected (see Augustus, 40.2); Lipsius suggested tribulibus.

  240. That is, on their death; a common euphemism.

  241. The original of this inscription is lost, but the greater part of a copy inscribed in Greek and Latin on marble is preserved at Ancyra in Asia Minor and is known as the Monumentum Ancyranum.

  242. 504 BC in the traditional chronology.

  243. See note on Augustus, 22.

  244. 449 BC in the traditional chronology.

  245. Cybele, a Phrygian goddess worshipped near Mount Ida. In the year 204 BC her cult was introduced into Rome, where she was worshipped as the Magna Mater.

  246. Cf. Julius, 20.4.

  247. That is, affixed the mark of ignominy (nota) to their names on the census roll.

  248. Ad pilleum: the pilleus, a close-fitting felt cap, was given to slaves on manumission, as a token of freedom.

  249. See Augustus, 62.2.

  250. See Augustus, 22.

  251. Cf. Julius, 39.2.

  252. The one built by Statilius Taurus; see Augustus, 29.5.

  253. Rudiarius: presented with the rudis, or wooden sword, a symbol of honourable discharge; cf. Horace Epistles 1.1.2.

  254. A child at birth was laid at his father’s feet. He then acknowledged him by taking him in his arms (tollere), or the child was disowned and cast out (expositus).

  255. Cf. Augustus, 63.2.

  256. See note on Augustus, 32.1.

  257. Cf. Augustus, 21.3.

  258. Transalpine Gaul was called Comata, “long-haired.” The southern part was called Braccata, “breeches-wearing,” and Cisalpine Gaul, Togata.

  259. I.e. celebrating a iustum triumphum; see note on Augustus, 22, and cf. Velleius Paterculus, Historiae Romanae 2.121. For a different version see Dio, 54.31.

  260. Since he was quaestor in 23 BC and consul for the first time in 13 BC, paene iunctim is used loosely, to indicate a general disregard of the ages required for the various offices and the prescribed intervals.

  261. Cf. Augustus, 66.3.

  262. The title of legatus gave him an official position and concealed the fact that his absence was a forced one.

  263. The Greek dress; see note on Augustus, 98.3.

  264. In Gallia Comata, where Tiberius had been governor; see Tiberius, 9.1.

  265. Gaius Caesar.

  266. Cf. Augustus, 26.2.

  267. “The Keels,” so-called from its shape, on the western slope of the Esquiline Hill, where the church of San Pietro in Vincoli now stands.

  268. Peculium was the term applied to the savings of a slave or of a son under his father’s control, which they were allowed to hold as their own property, though technically belonging to the master or father.

  269. At the Porta Triumphalis, at the head of the senate, who met the triumphing general there, and joined in the procession.

  270. Ordinarily the leaders of the enemy were strangled in the carcer, or dungeon, at the foot of the Capitoline Hill.

  271. See Augustus, 97.1.

  272. If the text is correct, the reference is to Tiberius’ literary tastes; cf. Horace, Odes, 3.4.37 ff.; Epistles 1.3.

  273. Cf. Ennius Annales 370 V 2; where cunctando takes the place of vigilando.

  274. Literally, “by the god of Truth;” Fidius was one of the surnames of Jupiter.

  275. Iliad, 10.246 f.

  276. A Greek proverb; cf. Terence Phormio 506 and Donatus, ad. loc.

  277. The secespita, or sacrificial knife, had a long, sharp point and a double edge, with an ivory handle ornamented with gold and silver.

  278. Civilis means “suited to a citizen” (of the days of the Republic). His conduct was that of a magistrate of the olden time, who had regard to the laws and the rights of his fellow-citizens.

  279. The reference is to an oath taken by all the citizens to support what the emperor had done in the past and might do in the future; see Dio, 57.8.

  280. See note on Julius, 76.1.

  281. See note on Julius, 2. This had been conferred on Augustus honoris causa, as the saviour of all the citizens.

  282. See Augustus, 101.2.

  283. See Augustus, 53.1.

  284. See note on Tiberius, 26.1.

  285. The flattery of the term dominos is the more marked because Tiberius himself shrank from it; cf. Tiberius, 27.

  286. That is, the granting to an individual or a company of the exclusive right to sell certain commodities. Forbidden in Codex Justinianeus 4.59.1.

  287. That is, to make use of the public post; see Augustus, 49.3, and Cicero De Legibus 3.18.

  288. See Augustus, 25.3.

  289. Consisting of prayers for the emperor’s welfare; see Dio, 57.11, and cf. Pliny Epistles 10.1, Fortem te et hilarem, Imperator optime, et privatim et publice opto.

  290. The designation of the seventh day of the week (Saturday) by the Jewish term “Sabbath” seems to have been common; cf. Augustus, 76.2.

  291. That is, at one end of the curved platform, to leave room for the praetor in the middle; cf. Tacitus Annals I.75, iudiciis adsidebat in cornu tribunalis, ne praetorem curuli depelleret.

  292. See note on Julius, 17.1.

  293. Cf. Augustus, 70.2.

  294. Both an hygienic and a moral measure, see Pliny Natural History XXVI.1 ff., and Epigrams of Martial XI.99.

  295. Strena, French étrenne, literally “an omen,” meant strictly gifts given for good luck.

  296. That is, of four times the value of the one which he received.

  297. The punishments for adultery had been made very severe by Augustus (cf. Augustus, 34). To escape these some matrons registered with the aediles as prostitutes, thereby sacrificing their rights as matrons, as well as their responsibilities; cf. Tacitus Annals 2.85.

  298. The first of July was the date for renting and hiring houses and rooms; hence it was “moving-day.” See Epigrams of Martial 12.32.

  299. To determine his province or the sphere of his duty. The reason for divorcing his wife is problematical. Evidently his marriage brought him some advantage which no longer existed after his province was determined.

  300. That is, the supporters and partisans of the rival actors; see Tacitus Annals 1.77.

  301. The members of the local senate.

  302. Taking refuge in temples and holy places, to avoid punishment for crimes; for its abuse see Tacitus Annals 3.60.

  303. The same proverb is mentioned by Cicero, Epistularum ad Atticum 13.12. The reference is to an Athenian actor of mimes, who imitated the movements of running but remained in the same spot.

  304. That is, to make some amends for his conduct.

  305. The divisions selected for jury duty.

  306. Biberius Caldius Mero: A name coined in jest after Tiberius Claudius Nero, from bibo, drink, cal(i)dus, hot, and merum, unmixed wine.

  307. Probably the emperor took a sip from the huge vessel and passed it to the man, who drained it to the dregs; cf. Virgil Aeneid 1.738. Since the amphora as a measure contained about seven gallons, the word is here probably used of a large tankard of that shape.

  308. See Tiberius, 56.

  309. See Augustus, 41.1; Tacitus Annals 2.37.

  310. This occurred twice, in 27 and 36; see Tacitus Annals 4.64 and 6.45. The second fire was on and near the Aventine.

  311. The decree is quoted by Tacitus Annals 6.17. The purpose was to put the money into circulation and at the same time to allow the debtors to pay in land.

  312. According to Tacitus (Annals 4.64) this was done by the senate, because the statue of Tiberius remained uninjured in the midst of the burned district.

  313. The standards had a sacred character; see, for example, Tacitus Annals 1.39.7; and the head of the reigning emperor was often placed under the eagle or other emblem.

  314. Since he would save the rewards to be paid on the completion of their term of service.

  315. Under pretence that they were hoarding money for revolutionary purposes. Caesar had limited the amount to be held by any one person in Italy to 60,000 sesterces; cf. Tacitus Annals 6.16; Dio, 41.38.

  316. But cf. Tiberius, 11.4, above.

  317. See note on Tiberius, 15.2.

  318. Sacrarium is really a shrine (perhaps to Augustus) in which the letters had been deposited.

  319. A sign that he was condemned to death; the noose was for strangling him and the hooks for dragging his body to the Tiber.

  320. With a play on the double mention of debitum.

  321. A knight must possess four hundred thousand sesterces; Tiberius, as the adopted son of Augustus, had no property. See Tiberius, 15.2.

  322. That is, not even a Roman citizen, since an exile lost his citizenship; still less a knight.

  323. Sulla adopted the surname Felix.

  324. Cf. Caligula, 30.1.

  325. If the text is correct, primae cohortes would seem to refer to the praetorians.

  326. Of Fortuna Primigenia.

  327. Cf. Tiberius, 26.2.

  328. Since Tiberius and Sejanus were consuls for the year, the reference is to consules suffecti, appointed to succeed to the honour for a part of the year, probably from July 1st.

  329. A somewhat similar method of telegraphy is mentioned at the beginning of the Agamemnon of Aeschylus as the means of sending the news of the fall of Troy to Mycenae.

  330. Where the senators sat at the theatre; cf. Augustus, 55.

  331. For this meaning of parricidium see note on Julius, 42.3.

  332. Quoted also by Tacitus Annals 6.6.

  333. That is, the change in his character and its consequences.

  334. One of the strongest arguments against the truth of the tales of his debauchery.

  335. See note on Augustus, 90.

  336. The grammaticus was a critic and teacher of literature, but “grammarian” has become conventional in this sense, as well as in its more restricted meaning.

  337. “Monopoly,” a Greek word transliterated into Latin; see note on Tiberius, 30.

  338. The Greek word for inlaid figures of metal riveted or soldered to cups. There is no exact equivalent in Latin, but Cicero twice uses the transliterated form emblema (In Verrem 4.49).

  339. See Julius, 39.4.

  340. This statue, which took its name from Temenos, a suburb of Syracuse, was a celebrated one; cf. Cicero In Verrem 2.4.119.

  341. Of Augustus, on the western slope of the Palatine Hill.

  342. Pharos, the lighthouse at Alexandria, became a general term. Cf. euripus, Julius, 39.2.

  343. The exact point is not clear. Perhaps an amphitheatre was chosen for the sake of ignominy, as well as to furnish accommodation for spectators, and that of Atella seems to have been the one nearest to Misenum. Or it may have been because of Tiberius’s failure to entertain the people with shows (see Tiberius, 47) that it was proposed to make a farce of his funeral in Atella, the home of the popular Atellan farces.

  344. That is, without holding the intermediate offices; the interval between his quaestorship and consulship was five years.

  345. Cf. Tiberius, 25.2.

  346. Cf. Tiberius, 52.3.

  347. See note on Tiberius, 26.1.

  348. Fuller details are given by Tacitus Annals 2.69.5. Such spells were often inscribed on leaden tablets (defixiones; plumbeis tabulis, Tacitus), specimens of which have come down to us.

  349. See note on Augustus, 101.3.

  350. See note on Tiberius, 7.2.

  351. A title originally applied to the king of Persia and transferred to the king of the Parthians.

  352. The Saturnalia: the principal festival of the Romans, beginning on December 17 and lasting for several days, in honour of Saturn. It was a time of general merrymaking. See also cf. note on Augustus, 71.1.

  353. Cf. Tiberius, 54.

  354. The acta publica or acta diurna, an official publication of important events.

  355. Caligula, 7.

  356. “Little Boots” (though really singular number). The caliga, or half-boot, was regularly worn by the soldiers.

  357. See Tiberius, 76.

  358. They were compelled to fulfil their vows; see Caligula, 27.2.

  359. Cf. Vitellius, 2.

  360. Of Augustus; see Augustus, 100.4.

  361. Originally the title of the commander of the knights who were under forty-five and in active service. Conferred on C. and L. Caesar by Augustus, it became the designation of the heir to the throne, and was later assumed by the emperors themselves.

  362. The consuls in making propositions to the senate began with a set formula (cf. Augustus, 58.2, Julius, 80.2), wishing success to the emperor, or in earlier days to the State.

  363. See Tiberius, 43.1.

  364. Cf. Augustus, 35.2.

  365. See Augustus, 28.1 and 101.4.

  366. Ducentesimam (sc. partem), one half of one percent.

  367. An error, since he was consul in 39, 40, and 41.

  368. See Augustus, 29.5.

  369. To be scrambled for by the spectators.

  370. Africanae, supply bestiae. Panthers or leopards.

  371. On the houses adjoining the Circus; called Maeniana after a certain Maenius, who was supposed to have been the first to build such balconies.

  372. Over three and a half Roman miles.

  373. See Tiberius, 55.

  374. See note on Tiberius, 6.4.

  375. Obviously not a choice, but determined by the degree of success of the contestants.

  376. See Claudius, 20.1.

  377. Cf. Julius, 44.3.

  378. Iliad 2.204.

  379. Under Caligula the so-called “principate” had become an absolute monarchy. Caligula proposed to assume the pomp of a king.

  380. The chryselephantine statue of Zeus by Pheidias; see Caligula, 57.1.

  381. Numidicae and meleagrides are the same.

  382. Iliad, 23.724, where after a long and indecisive wrestling bout Ajax thus challenges Odysseus to settle the contest. Ἀνάειρε is doubtless used in a double sense, perhaps with aposiopesis, “Raise me up (to heaven), or thee I’ll⁠—.”

  383. See Augustus, 16.1.

  384. The stola was the characteristic dress of the Roman matron, as the toga was that of the man.

  385. See note on Tiberius, 37.3.

  386. By adoption; see Caligula, 15.2.

  387. Or perhaps, in short linen tunics.

  388. This remark shows the regard in which the empty title of “consul” was still held.

  389. The reason for the term decimas, if the reading be correct, is uncertain; cf. note on Augustus, 41.2. Obviously his purpose was to lead the rabble to occupy the knights’ seats before the plays began, and thus to start a fight.

  390. The meaning of paegniarii is uncertain; they may have carried arma lusoria or arms incapable of causing death. See Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners, English translation. IV p. 179.

  391. The elogium was the tablet on which the charge against the prisoner was recorded.

  392. It seems probable that there happened to be a bald-headed man at each end of the line; the expression became proverbial.

  393. See Caligula, 14.2.

  394. See Augustus, 60.

  395. “Immobility,” a Stoic virtue. Since in Gaius this took the form of callous indifference to suffering and to public opinion, it became inverecundia.

  396. Accius, Tragedies, 203.

  397. See Caligula, 15.4.

  398. For punishment, or to fight in the arena.

  399. Retiarii: net-fighters who were lightly armed and fought with uncovered heads. They carried a net, in which they tried to entangle their opponents, and a trident and dagger, with which they slew them, if successful. See Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners (English Translation p. 446, ftn. b) IV, 171 ff.

  400. Secutores: the usual opponents of the retiarii. They were armed with a sword, a shield, a greave and a visored helmet. See Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners (English Translation p. 446, ftn. b) IV, 171 ff.

  401. See Augustus, 23.1.

  402. See Tiberius, 40.

  403. See Caligula, 19.

  404. See note on Caligula, 30.3.

  405. The popa knocked down the victim with a mallet or with the back of an axe-head, and the cultrarius then cut the animal’s throat.

  406. Literally, “the cords,” as an instrument of torture; cf. Tiberius, 62.2. On the whole passage cf. Caligula, 25.3 and 50.2.

  407. See Caligula, 26.1.

  408. He himself was bald; see Caligula, 50.1.

  409. The “Giant Cupid” from κολοσσός and ἔρως.

  410. The priest of Diana at Nemi, who must be a fugitive slave and obtain his office by slaying his predecessor.

  411. A gladiator who fought from a British chariot; see note on Caligula, 30.3.

  412. The Liburnian galleys, so-called from a people of Illyricum, were famous for their speed. They commonly had but one or two banks of oars.

  413. That is, if anyone chanced to have received an addition to his income since the last census, he charged him with having made a false report to the censors, and of course confiscated his estate.

  414. The part occupied by Augustus and Tiberius, to which Caligula had made some additions.

  415. See note on Augustus, 19.1.

  416. See Augustus, 57.1.

  417. Sinus means the bosom of the toga, which was often used as a pocket.

  418. Celebrated for its beautiful scenery, described by Pliny, Epistles 8.8 (Latin English).

  419. Half the amount established by Augustus; see Dio, 55.23.

  420. Ordinarily such vehicles were allowed to pass through the city streets only before sunrise or during the last two hours of the day. See Friedländer, Roman Life and Manners, English translation. IV p. 28.

  421. See Augustus, 29.2.

  422. From exploratores, scouts or rangers.

  423. Aeneid 1.207.

  424. One of the various kinds of “torsion-engines” (tormenta) used by the Romans. The ballista cast stones, the catapulta large arrows or darts.

  425. The lighthouse at Alexandria.

  426. To the privy-purse, of course.

  427. See Caligula, 9.

  428. See Augustus, 24.2.

  429. See note on Augustus, 22.

  430. Cf. Caligula, 3.1.

  431. See Julius, 45.1.

  432. After his murder; probably referring to the praetorians.

  433. Men were forbidden to wear silk garments; see Tacitus Annals 2.33, ne vestis serica viros foedaret.

  434. The cyclas was a kind of robe worn by women and embroidered with gold and purple.

  435. Cf. Augustus, 18.1.

  436. That is, if he succeeded better in his accusation, he took sides against the defendant, and vice versa, regardless of justice.

  437. Cf. Caligula, 32.2.

  438. A festival in honour of some god of goddess, celebrated with feasting, dancing, and plays of all kinds.

  439. About midnight, since the night was divided into four vigiliae.

  440. The scabellum was attached to the feet of dancers and sounded an accompaniment to their movements.

  441. See note on Caligula, 30.3. He disliked the murmillones, as the opponents of his favourites, the Thracians.

  442. The charioteers in the Circus were divided into four parties, distinguished by their colours, which were red, white, blue, and green. Domitian added two more; see Domitian, 7.1.

  443. The “stable” was in reality a kind of club, containing the quarters of the drivers as well as the stalls of the horses.

  444. The host at a dinner party often gave gifts to his guests to take away with them (hence called by the Greek name apophoreta); cf. Augustus, 75.

  445. Swift, “Flyer.”

  446. Cf. Augustus, 45.4.

  447. Referring of course to the assassination of Julius Caesar.

  448. See Caligula, 22.3.

  449. It was called Cinyras, and its story is told by Ovid, Metamorphoses 10.298 ff.

  450. Its name was derived from a famous highwayman; cf. Juvenal 8.186.

  451. The actors secundarum partium entertained the spectators after a play by imitating the actions of the star.

  452. Another formula “Receive the fulfilment of your omen,” i.e., in naming Jupiter, the god of the thunderbolt and sudden death. “Qui legendum vidit iratum, verum vidit: hoc est aliquid Latine dicere, cum alterum nihil sit” Gronovius.

  453. With which they carried his litter.

  454. Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, slain in 87 BC. But the Dictator’s father died a natural death, as did also Gaius Caesar, grandson of Augustus; see Augustus, 65.1.

  455. See Augustus, 62.2.

  456. Literally, “the blest,” those on whom fortune smiles.

  457. The fossae Drusinae, two miles long, connecting the Rhine with the Yssel, to furnish a passage to the North Sea.

  458. See Augustus, 22.

  459. Cf. Tiberius, 7.3.

  460. The reference is probably to the scribae quaestorii, the quaestor’s clerks, who were the most important of the attendants upon the magistrates. They formed a guild composed of six decuriae, or divisions of ten, presided over by six officers called sex primi curatorum.

  461. A decursus or decursio. Dio, 56.42, describes the one about the funeral pyre of Augustus. After running around it in full armour, the soldiers cast into the fire the military prizes which they had received from the emperor; cf. Julius, 84.4.

  462. See note on Tiberius, 26.1.

  463. The spolia opima were the armour of the leader of the enemy, taken from him in hand-to-hand combat by a Roman general.

  464. C. and L. Caesar: see Tiberius, 23.

  465. That is, on the anniversary of the dedication, which was in 12 BC

  466. That is, the age at which one was ordinarily freed from tutelage. The usual formula is in suam tutelam venire, Cicero De Oratore I.39.180.

  467. Of relatives and friends.

  468. The future emperor.

  469. Claudius.

  470. Celebrated by Augustus in 12 AD in honour of Mars Ultor; cf. Augustus, 29.1 and 2.

  471. The two Greek words, ἄρτιος and ὁλόκληρος, mean “complete,” “perfect of one’s kind;” the meaning therefore is “if he have his five senses.”

  472. See note on Augustus, 45.1.

  473. See note on Julius, 83.2; the heirs in the third degree had little or no prospect of receiving their inheritance.

  474. Sigillaria: December 21 and 22, an extension of the Saturnalia, when it was customary to make presents of little images of various kinds (sigilla); also the name of a quarter or street in Rome, see Claudius, 16.4; Nero, 28.2.

  475. Founded by Tiberius for the worship of the Deified Augustus.

  476. Of his house.

  477. Gaius appointed a number of consuls at once, who drew lots for the year when they were to hold the office.

  478. See Caligula, 8.1 and 24.3.

  479. The Rhine.

  480. See Caligula, 22.3.

  481. He had borrowed money from the public treasury for his entrance fee into the new priesthood, and pledged his estates as security.

  482. That is, the prefects of the treasury, chosen from the praetors and ex-praetors (see Augustus, 36). Claudius later restored the charge of the treasury to the quaestors (see Claudius, 24.2).

  483. In vacuum; the meaning in uncertain. It perhaps means that the advertisement was merely a matter of form, though none the less humiliating.

  484. “Hope” of becoming emperor; “confidence” that he had escaped death.

  485. By restoring the republic.

  486. For carrying her image; see Caligula, 15.1 and cf. Tiberius, 51.2.

  487. Germanicus.

  488. See Augustus, 98.5. The comedy was doubtless written by Germanicus; see Caligula, 3.2.

  489. See Julius, 76.1.

  490. With garlands and perfumes; cf. note on Tiberius, 48.2.

  491. See note on Julius, 62. It was considered a bad omen if it was difficult to pull the standards from the ground.

  492. Before his own tribunal.

  493. More literally “the decuries for court duty,” to distinguish them from the decuries of knights, scribes, etc.

  494. That is, he enjoyed the privileges of the ius trium liberorum, one of which was freedom from jury duty.

  495. Cf. Dio, 60.28.

  496. Only a Roman citizen had the right to wear the toga.

  497. On these see Augustus, 39.

  498. By affixing the nota, or mark of disgrace, to their names on the census-list.

  499. Referring to the street or quarter; see note on Claudius, 5.

  500. Suetonius is vague. Dio, 60.19, says that one Bericus, who had been expelled from the island during a revolution, persuaded Claudius to send troops there. Possibly the reference is to the deserters mentioned in Caligula, 44.

  501. A suburb of Rome, lying north of the city, outside of the Serbian wall.

  502. A large building in the campus Martius, where the votes cast in the elections were sorted and counted; according to Dio, 55.8, the largest building ever covered by a single roof.

  503. Passed in 9 AD, after the failure of Augustus’ law de maritandis ordinibus; see Augustus, 34.

  504. See note on Augustus, 47.

  505. These were numerous and varied; cf. Dio, 55.2.

  506. This had been brought by Gaius from Heliopolis and set up in the spina of his circus, near the Vatican hill. It now stands before the cathedral of St. Peter. The great ship in which it was transported to Rome from Alexandria is described by Pliny, Natural History 16.201.

  507. Pompey placed the temple of Venus Victrix at the top of his theatre, so that the seats of the auditorium formed an approach to it. There were also shrines of Honour, Virtus and Felicitas; see Pliny, Natural History 8.20.

  508. See Augustus, 31.4.

  509. Built by Gaius; see note on Claudius, 20.3.

  510. The carceres were compartments closed by barriers, one for each chariot. They were probably twelve in number and were so arranged as to be at an equal distance from the starting point of the race. When the race began, the barriers were removed. The metae, or “goals,” were three conical pillars at each end of the spina, or low wall which ran down the middle of the arena, about which the chariots had to run a given number of times, usually seven; see Domitian, 4.3.

  511. See note on Augustus, 74.

  512. Instead of keeping it covered with his toga, an undignified performance for an emperor.

  513. “The Dove,” nickname of a gladiator.

  514. The symbol of discharge; cf. Horace Epistles 1.1.2.

  515. See note on Caligula, 35.3.

  516. About to die; one of Claudius’s feeble jokes, which the combatants pretended to understand as meaning that they need not risk their lives in battle.

  517. See Claudius, 30 below.

  518. That those whom he had selected were worthy of the honour.

  519. See Galba, 14.3, from which it appears that Claudius made the summer and autumn seasons continuous, and did away with the winter term.

  520. The relegatio was a milder form of exile, without loss of citizenship or confiscation of property, but in this case the offenders were not banished, but confined to the city and its immediate vicinity.

  521. The procuratores were the emperor’s agents, who performed various administrative duties throughout the empire. They were members of the equestrian order and were ranked on the basis of their annual stipend as trecenarii, ducenarii, centenarii, and sexagenarii, receiving respectively 300,000, 200,000, 100,000, and 60,000 sesterces.

  522. A common reason for this was the desire to engage in business, which senators were not allowed to do.

  523. The state treasury, located in the temple of Saturn in the Forum; cf. Augustus, 36.

  524. According to Tacitus, Annals 11.20, this was done by the legions in Germany.

  525. That is, if their own freedmen proved ungrateful and they wished to bring suit against them.

  526. In the Tiber at Rome, so-called from its temple of Aesculapius.

  527. That is, the gentile names such as Claudius, Cornelius, etc.; apparently forenames (Gaius, Lucius, and the like) and surnames (Lentulus, Nasica) might be assumed, although a foreigner often retained his native name as a surname.

  528. The part of the Esquiline hill on both sides of the Serbian wall; occupied in part by the Gardens of Maecenas; see Horace Sermones 1.8. The place of execution seems to have been outside of the Porta Esquilina.

  529. Another form of Christus; see Tertullian, Apologeticum 3 (at the end). It is uncertain whether Suetonius is guilty of an error in chronology or is referring to some Jew of that name. The former seems probable because of the absence of quodam. Tacitus Annals 15.44, uses the correct form, Christus, and states that He was executed in the reign of Tiberius.

  530. The gender is not significant; cf. Livy 1.24; Varro De Re Rustica 2.4.9.

  531. See Livy 1.24.

  532. Of Claudius from Urgulanilla.

  533. Either Suetonius is in error here, or the text is corrupt, since Claudius’ second consulship did not begin until 42, and he began to reign Jan. 25, 41.

  534. A common military prize.

  535. Only two of these are known, both named Drusilla. One was the daughter of Juba II, king of Mauretania, and the other of Herod Agrippa I, of Judaea; the latter was previously married to Azizus, king of Emesa.

  536. Otherwise restricted to knights.

  537. Claudius, 25.

  538. The fulcra were the ends of the couches on which the pillows were placed; see Classical Review 3, pp. 322 ff.

  539. Cf. Augustus, 64.3.

  540. Their feasts were proverbial for luxury; see Horace Odes, I.37.2.

  541. See Augustus, 33.1.

  542. See Livy, I.26.6; Nero, 49.2; Domitian, 11.2⁠–⁠3.

  543. Their faces were not covered by helmets; retiarii: net-fighters who were lightly armed and fought with uncovered heads. They carried a net, in which they tried to entangle their opponents, and a trident and dagger, with which they slew them, if successful.

  544. According to Pliny, Natural History 28.34, game killed with a knife with which a man had been slain was a specific for epilepsy.

  545. Those who fought during the midday interval, perhaps the paegniarii; See Caligula, 26.5, with the reference to Friedländer there given.

  546. A structure with several movable stories, for show pieces and other stage effects; see Juvenal 4.122, and Mayor’s note.

  547. See note on Augustus, 19.1.

  548. Claudius, 12.

  549. Claudius, 13.

  550. Of the praetorian guard, in the northeastern part of the city.

  551. Narcissus.

  552. See note on Claudius, 23.2.

  553. See Tiberius, 34.1. Claudius apparently allowed greater freedom. The restrictions were renewed by Nero (see Nero, 16.2), and according to Dio, 60.6, Claudius himself (later?) issued an edict forbidding the sale of dressed meats and hot water, as well as abolishing the drinking-booths.

  554. Obviously some man proverbial for his folly; but nothing is known about him.

  555. The famous historian.

  556. Because he stammered; see Claudius, 30.

  557. His grandmother Octavia was the widow, and his mother Antonia the daughter, of Mark Antony.

  558. These were Ⱶ, to represent the sound between u and i in maxumus, maximus, etc.; Ↄ, for the sound of bs as ps; Ⅎ for consonant u.

  559. See Julius, 20.1, at the beginning.

  560. I.e. in Greek; cf. Tiberius, 71.

  561. Referring to the cohort on guard at the Palace; cf. Claudius, 10.

  562. Iliad, 24.369; Odyssey 21.133.

  563. A proverbial expression, derived from the story of Telephus, who when wounded by Achilles was told by the oracle that he could be cured only by the one who dealt the blow. Achilles cured him by applying rust from his spear to the wound.

  564. That is, a legitimate heir to the throne.

  565. The northern spur of the Capitoline Hill.

  566. The formula was “Di meliora (duint)!” “May the Gods grant better things,” i.e. “the Gods forbid!”

  567. The youths were Castor and Pollux, and the victory that at Lake Regillus, in 498 BC, according to the traditional chronology.

  568. Suetonius is in error here; it was the father of the tribune who defeated the Allobroges.

  569. Os has about the force of “cheek” in colloquial English.

  570. See Julius, 34.1.

  571. Proposed by Q. Pedius, Caesar’s colleague in the consulship.

  572. The Pedian law.

  573. That is, as his executor. The maker of a will chose a man to whom he made a symbolic sale (per aes et librum; see Augustus, 64.1) of all his goods in the presence of witnesses. The purchaser then made the designated payments to the heirs and legatees.

  574. Augustus, 64 and 65.

  575. Gouging out the eyes seems to have been a favourite mode of attack among the Italians; cf. Augustus, 27.4, Nero, 26.2, and the frequent allusions in comedy.

  576. And paid for through the bankers; cf. perscriptum fuisset, Julius, 42.2.

  577. In his capacity as praetor; this was adding insult to injury, since the edict did not affect the present case.

  578. See note on Tiberius, 7.2.

  579. See note on Tiberius, 7.2 and cf. Augustus, 5.

  580. Boys on the ninth day after birth, and girls on the eighth, were purified by a sacrifice and given a name; the ceremony was called lustratio.

  581. That is, as if the story had a better foundation, and the serpent had really saved his life through divine agency.

  582. So the mss., but it should be the twelfth (Lipsius) or thirteenth (Oudendorp).

  583. That is, his adoptive father Claudius.

  584. See note on Claudius, 1.3.

  585. See note on Claudius, 42.1.

  586. Cf. Tacitus Annals 12.68.

  587. See Claudius, 19.

  588. Cf. Vespasian, 17.

  589. Cf. Augustus, 53.3, nullo submonente.

  590. An honour previously conferred only on generals after a great victory; cf. Julius, 24.3, at the end.

  591. That is, the part which he had read.

  592. In commemoration of the first shaving of his beard; see Nero, 12.4, below.

  593. This had previously been done only at the theatre (see note on Julius, 39.2); senators were first given special seats at the Circus by Claudius; See Claudius, 21.3.

  594. A tightrope, sloping downwards across the arena; cf. Galba, 6.

  595. The musicians, machinists, etc.; cf. Claudius, 34.2.

  596. Cf. Julius, 39.1. Originally war dances, their scope was extended to pantomime of all kinds, as appears from what follows.

  597. See note on Augustus, 98.3.

  598. The podium in the amphitheatre was a raised platform, close to the arena, on which the imperial family, the curule magistrates, and the Vestal virgins sat on curule chairs. Nero reclined there on a couch.

  599. In the broad sense, including poetry and oratory.

  600. The baths, the Thermae Neronianae, were in the Campus Martius, near the Pantheon. The gymnasium, the first permanent building of the kind at Rome, was attached to the baths.

  601. And to act as judges.

  602. Cf. Augustus, 44.3.

  603. Of Pompey.

  604. See note on Augustus, 13.2.

  605. This was usual only when a triumph was celebrated.

  606. See note on Augustus, 22.

  607. He assumed a fifth consulship in 68; see Nero, 43 below.

  608. See Julius, 76.2, where, however, the man’s name is not mentioned.

  609. See Augustus, 65.2.

  610. This was undoubtedly after the great fire; see Nero, 38.

  611. Various attempts had however been made to check this form of luxury; see Claudius, 40.1.

  612. Because of their disorderly conduct; see Nero, 26.2, and Tacitus Annals 13.25.

  613. The tablets consisted of three leaves, two of which were bound together and sealed. The contract was written twice, on the open leaf and on the closed ones. In cases of dispute the seals were broken in the presence of the signers and the two versions compared.

  614. As witnesses. The testator afterwards wrote the names of the heirs on these leaves.

  615. The Cincian law of 204 BC forbade fees. Augustus renewed the law in 17 BC (Dio, 54.18). Claudius limited fees to 10,000 sesterces (Tacitus Annals 11.5⁠–⁠6). The senate again abolished fees at the beginning of Nero’s reign (Tacitus Annals 13.5), but Nero apparently revived the law of Claudius, with a provision against the addition of “costs.”

  616. Instead of coming before the prefects of the treasury; cf. Claudius, 9.2.

  617. That is, his adoptive father Claudius.

  618. Of Corinth; cf. Julius, 44.3.

  619. Roman measure; a little under 5 ft. 10 in. English.

  620. Cf. Gellius, Noctes Atticae 13.31.3.

  621. It collapsed in consequence, but not until the audience had dispersed; see Tacitus Annals 15.34.

  622. Literally, “full-packed,” i.e. full of sound, sonorous.

  623. The first seems to have derived its name from the sound, which was like the humming of bees, the second and third from clapping with the hands rounded or hollowed, like roof-tiles, or flat, like bricks or flat tiles.

  624. See Nero, 12.3.

  625. Probably asking for the favourable attention of the audience; cf. Dio, 61.20 and Nero, 23.3.

  626. That is, those given by the magistrates; under the Empire all but the emperor were privati, regardless of their official positions.

  627. By his guardian and teachers.

  628. See note on Caligula, 55.2.

  629. The signal for the start.

  630. Nero, 19.1.

  631. Cf. Juvenal VIII.224 ff.

  632. Of the theatre; for a similar use of murus see Nero, 38.1.

  633. Oppida, the term applied to the towers and other structures at the entrance to the Circus, seems to be used here of the corresponding part of the theatre.

  634. The use of a handkerchief was not allowed; see also Tacitus Annals 16.4.

  635. The hypocrites (hypocrita) made the gestures and accompanied the tragic actor on the flute, as he spoke his lines.

  636. The heralds for the great festivals were selected by competition among the rival candidates.

  637. The Greek term hieronices, “victor in the sacred games,” indicates the religious nature of the festivals.

  638. That is, with local self-government, not with actual independence.

  639. See note on Nero, 25.

  640. See Nero, 20.3.

  641. To make more room for the procession, which passed through the Circus (Dio, 63.20). The reference is probably to the gateway at the eastern end, through which the procession entered and passed out again, after marching around the spina (see note on Claudius, 21.3). Suetonius mentions only the exit from the Circus. In his time the gateway was formed by the Arch of Vespasian and Titus, erected by Domitian in 81 AD

  642. That is, songbirds, as a compliments to Nero’s voice; the other offerings were also typical of his art and his triumph.

  643. Cf. Augustus, 84.2.

  644. Quintana is really the market of a camp, named from the Quintana via, one of the streets of a Roman camp, on which the market was regularly placed.

  645. See note on Nero, 5.1.

  646. Julius Montanus; see Tacitus Annals 13.25.

  647. And their bands of partisans; see Nero, 16.2.

  648. Made for sea-fights; see Augustus, 43.1; Tiberius, 72.1.

  649. With mitellita and rosaria we may supply cena; the former means a banquet at which silken turbans were a distinguishing feature.

  650. Cf. Claudius, 16.4.

  651. Used in a double sense.

  652. That is, could balance the account of their expenditures.

  653. See Nero, 13.

  654. That is, for each pip of the winning throw.

  655. Celebrated horsemen of Mauretania.

  656. See note on Augustus, 25.3.

  657. That is, with three parallel rows of columns.

  658. One may compare Hadrian’s villa at Tibur (Tivoli) with its Canopus, its Vale of Tempe, and the like.

  659. Suetonius’ brevity is here inexact; it was evidently the spherical ceiling which revolved.

  660. That is, had left him nothing in their wills, or an insufficient amount.

  661. See Nero, 24.2.

  662. Of course confiscating their property.

  663. According to Dio, 60.35 (at the end) the saying was original with Nero; but as Dio calls it “a remark not unworthy of record,” it perhaps became proverbial among the Greeks.

  664. But cf. Nero, 9.

  665. The pun on morari, “to linger, remain” and mōrari, “to play the fool,” seems untranslatable.

  666. Against assassination (De sicariis), including poisoning, passed by Sulla and renewed by Julius Caesar.

  667. For her past offences; see Tacitus Annals 12.66.

  668. See Juvenal I.71 f.

  669. The inventor was his freedman Anicetus; Tacitus Annals 14.3.

  670. See Augustus, 71.3.

  671. Given by the future emperor Otho; see Otho, 3.

  672. Tacitus tells us that some denied this; Annals 14.9.

  673. That is, “when I see you arrived at man’s estate.” The first shaving of the beard by a young Roman was a symbolic act, usually performed at the age of twenty-one with due ceremony; see Nero, 12.3, above. According to Tacitus Annals 14.15, and Dio, 61.19, Nero first shaved his beard in 59 AD at the age of twenty-one and commemorated the event by establishing the Juvenales ludi or Juvenalia (Nero, 11.1).

  674. A brutal pun. Just as the consular insignia or ornamenta were given in place of the regular office (See Claudius, 5), and the triumphal insignia in place of a triumph, so Octavia ought to be content with being the emperor’s wife in name only.

  675. Anicetus was at the time prefect of the praetorian fleet at Misenum; see Tacitus Annals 14.62.

  676. See Claudius, 27.1.

  677. Seneca’s speech and Nero’s reply are preserved by Tacitus (Annals 14.53⁠–⁠56).

  678. Pallas and Doryphorus; see Tacitus Annals 14.65.

  679. Tacitus mentions two comets, one in 60 and the other in 64; see Annals 14.22; 15.47.

  680. As Dio says (62.24) “they desired at the same time to be rid of these evils and to give Nero his release from them.” Death with the only remedy for one as far gone in wickedness; hence in attempting to apply this remedy, they were doing him a favour. Cf. also Tacitus Annals 15.68.

  681. The capsarii carried the children’s books and writing materials in a box (capsa).

  682. The Greek word means “a glutton,” or something stronger.

  683. Such a salutation was usual; see Pliny Panegyricus Traiani XXIII.

  684. A line put by Dio, 58.23, into the mouth of Tiberius. It is believed to be from the Bellerophon, a lost play of Euripides.

  685. But cf. Tacitus Annals 15.38.

  686. Insulae here refers to blocks of houses, or tenements, in which rooms were rented to the poorer classes; domus to detached houses or mansions.

  687. A tower connected with the house and gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline; see Horace Odes, 3.29.10, molem propinquam nubibus arduis. It was probably connected with the Palatine by the domus transitoria; see Nero, 21.2 and Tacitus Annals 15.39, whose account, as well as that of Dio, 62.18, differs from that of Suetonius.

  688. Probably a composition of his own; cf. Juvenal 8.221 and Vitellius, 11.2.

  689. Venus Libitina, in whose temple funeral outfits and a register of deaths were kept; cf. Horace, Horatii Flacci Sermonum II.6, 19.

  690. Camulodunum (Meldon) and Verulamium (St. Albans); according to Xiphilinus (61.1) 80,000 perished.

  691. The numerical value of the Greek letters in Nero’s name (1005) is the same as that of the rest of the sentence; hence we have an equation, Nero = the slayer of one’s own mother.

  692. Referring to Nero’s design mentioned in Nero, 37.3.

  693. If the text is right, the remark must be of a general nature (“us” = mankind). Dio, 63.27, who reads διαθρέψει, says that Nero when planning to kill the senators, burn Rome, and sail to Alexandria, said: “Even though we be driven from our empire, yet this little artistic gift of ours shall support us there;” i.e. at Alexandria.

  694. Cf. Nero, 7.1.

  695. This and the following sentences show Nero’s utter failure to realize the real gravity of the situation and his fluctuation between panic fear and fatuous confidence.

  696. Implying that Nero would have been the centre of attraction, if he were not otherwise engaged.

  697. Since Nero commanded the army, the consul in question must be himself; hence the se of ς is unnecessary.

  698. Instead of to their landlords. These people had no rating on the census list and their contribution took this form.

  699. That is, tested by fire; see Pliny, Natural History 33.59.

  700. By using, for his own purposes, ships which would have otherwise been loaded with grain; but the text and the meaning are uncertain.

  701. Doubtless an allusion to the long hair which he wore during his Greek trip; see Nero, 51.

  702. In contrast with those of the stage.

  703. The one in which parricides were put; see Augustus, 33.1. But the text and the meaning are uncertain. Cf. Juvenal 8.213.

  704. There is obviously a pun on Galli, “Gauls,” and galli, “cocks,” and on cantare in the sense of “sing” and of “crow.”

  705. Punning of course on Vindex, the leader of the revolt.

  706. On the first of January, for the prosperity of the emperor and the State.

  707. Of course used in a double sense.

  708. Pliny Natural History 37.29, tells us that the cups were of crystal.

  709. Virgil Aeneid 12.646.

  710. In the Palace.

  711. See Nero, 30.2.

  712. The word percussor implies experience in dealing death. Nero wished to be killed swiftly and painlessly.

  713. Referring to a drink of his own contrivance, distilled water cooled in snow; cf. Pliny Natural History 31.40.

  714. Cella implies a small room, for the use of slaves.

  715. The water was for washing the corpse and the fire for burning it.

  716. Cf. Claudius, 34.1.

  717. Two pieces of wood, fastened together in the form of a V.

  718. Iliad, 10.535.

  719. See Domitian, 14.4.

  720. See Galba, 14.2.

  721. The modern Pincio.

  722. This synthesina (sc. vestis), or synthesis, was a loose robe of bright-coloured silk, worn at dinner, during the Saturnalia, and by women at other times. Nero’s is described by Dio, 63.13, as “a short, flowered tunic with a muslin collar.”

  723. Probably meaning “in slippers.”

  724. See note on Augustus, 97.1. Here lustrum is applied to the five-year period of the Olympic games.

  725. Atargatis, the principal deity of Northern Syria, identified with Magna Mater and Caelestis; often mentioned in inscriptions and called by Apul. Metamorphoses 8.25, omnipotens et omniparens.

  726. See note on Tiberius, 4.2.

  727. In 88, Terentius Maximus by name; another pseudo-Nero had appeared in 70; see Tacitus Histories 2.8.

  728. Nero was the last who bore the name because of connection with the family of Augustus; after him it became a designation of rank.

  729. “The Hen Roost.”

  730. Those which they carried in their triumph, according to Pliny, Natural History 15.136 f.

  731. No such temple is known.

  732. No existing inscription confirms this statement.

  733. That is, of those of the Sulpicii who bore the surname Galba.

  734. The gum of a Syrian plant; see Pliny Natural History 12.126.

  735. See Nero, 3.1.

  736. That is, after his consulship. Tiberius doubtless suspected him of a desire to enrich himself at the expense of the provincials; cf. Tiberius, 32.2, at the end.

  737. The usual procedure, to avert the evil omen.

  738. Proverbial for “never,” like the Greek Kalends (Augustus, 87.1).

  739. To marry and rear a family was regarded as one of the duties of a good citizen.

  740. Cf. Nero, 11.2.

  741. That is to say, entering office on January 1, and with his colleague, L. Cornelius Sulla, giving his name to the year.

  742. Either Suetonius is in error or the manuscripts; the name should be Gnaeus.

  743. See Caligula, 43 and 44.

  744. Cf. Caligula, 26.2.

  745. Except in special cases, the governors were appointed by lot from among those who were eligible.

  746. The modius was 8.75 litres.

  747. See note on Julius, 79.3.

  748. The sodales Titii were an ancient priesthood of uncertain origin. The tradition arose that they were established to keep up the ancient Sabine worship, and named from Titus Tatius.

  749. See note on Claudius, 6.2.

  750. So as to be able to leave the country on short notice.

  751. See note on Claudius, 24.1.

  752. Such predictions, like the responses of oracles, were in verse.

  753. Instead of the emperor, as heretofore.

  754. Evocati were soldiers who, after serving their time, were invited to continue their service. It is here an honorary title.

  755. See note on Julius, 33.

  756. See Galba, 10.1.

  757. See note on Galba, 1.

  758. See note on Claudius, 24.1.

  759. Cf. Augustus, 24.2; Caligula, 48.1.

  760. Cf. Augustus, 49.1; Caligula, 58.3.

  761. Doubtless many of them were false or exaggerated. Galba’s frugality was naturally regarded as stinginess by a people accustomed to a prince like Nero; see Nero, 31.1.

  762. Plutarch, Galba, XVI, gives the story quite a different aspect, saying that the gift was of gold pieces, and that Galba said that it came from his own pocket, and not from the public funds.

  763. The text is uncertain, but obviously the song ridiculed a stingy old countryman.

  764. Cf. the inimitable sentence of Tacitus (Histories 1.49) maior privatus visus, dum privatus, et omnium consensu capax imperii, nisi imperasset.

  765. See note on Julius, 33.

  766. Prefect of the praetorian guard.

  767. See note on Claudius, 15.1.

  768. See Claudius, 23.1, and the note.

  769. These offices were numerous and varied. Since his apparent purpose was to check ambition and avarice, the senatorial offices referred to were probably military commands and governorships, and the equestrian, procuratorships; see note on Claudius, 24.1.

  770. According to Plutarch (Galba, 2) it was Nymphidius Sabinus, prefect of the praetorian guard, who made this promise. Praepositi would include those who followed his example.

  771. See Galba, 11.

  772. As he was on his way to Rome.

  773. See Galba, 4.3.

  774. The fire should have been blazing brightly and a youth clad in white should have carried the incense in a proper box (acerra, see Galba, 8) and the wine in a more costly and appropriate vessel.

  775. Of Piso.

  776. Of the praetorian guard.

  777. Which he had hitherto refused; see Galba, 16.1.

  778. See note on Caligula, 58.2.

  779. In the Forum; see Augustus, 57.1. Curti lacus: A marsh in the Roman Forum, the site of which was afterwards enclosed by a wall and has recently been unearthed. Various stories are told of its origin.

  780. Iliad, 5.254; Odyssey 21.426.

  781. The meaning of this passage is uncertain and the interpretations various; see the long note in the ed. of Baumgarten-Crusius. The meaning of super manus is particularly dark; the most plausible suggestion is that it is equivalent to ante se.

  782. Like Maecenas, Otho was Tyrrhena regum progenies; Horace Odes, 3.29.1.

  783. See Claudius, 13 and 35.2.

  784. Suetonius does not mention this among the conspiracies against Claudius; see Claudius, 13.

  785. Instead of the modern blanket a sagum, or military cloak, was used, whence the operation was called sagatio.

  786. The penalty for extortion was expulsion from the senate; see Julius, 43.1.

  787. See note on Nero, 34.2.

  788. According to Tacitus Ann. 13.45, the marriage was a real one, as is also implied below.

  789. See note above.

  790. Tacitus and Plutarch give Ptolemaeus as the name of the astrologer.

  791. Between the adoption and the death of Galba, a space of five days.

  792. A pillar covered with gilded bronze, erected by Augustus, in 20 BC, on which were engraved the names of the principal cities of the empire and their distance from Rome. The Roman roads were supposed to converge at that point, but the distances on them were reckoned from the gates.

  793. Proverbial of undertaking something beyond one’s powers; cf. Cicero Epistularum ad Atticum II.16.

  794. To Ostia.

  795. Of the armoury.

  796. This difficult passage is obscure because of its brevity and perhaps through corruption of the text. The same story is told by Tacitus (Histories 1.80) and Plutarch (Otho, 3), but the three accounts seem to vary. According to Suetonius the arms were sent from the praetorian camp to Ostia, to fit out the (eighteenth) cohort, and the riot started in the praetorian camp; the account of Tacitus seems to imply that it was the soldiers from Ostia (joined by the praetorians) that burst into Otho’s dining-room: insidentes equis urbem ac Palatium petunt. The arms in question would seem to be a part of those belonging to the cohort; hence remitti. See however Hofstee, ad loc.

  797. From the temple of Mars, to be carried through the streets in the sacred procession. To begin any enterprise during that time was considered unlucky, and weddings were avoided; see Ovid, Fasti, III.393.

  798. Cybele, whose festival was from March 24 to 30.

  799. Tacitus, Histories 2.24, says locus Castorum (= Castoris et Pollucis) vocatur, and that it was twelve miles from Cremona. There was probably a temple there to the Twin Brethren.

  800. See Tacitus Annals 2.48.

  801. See Caligula, 14.3.

  802. See Claudius, 29.1.

  803. See Claudius, 21.2.

  804. See Tiberius, 43.1.

  805. See Nero, 12.3 and 21.

  806. A faction in the Circus; see note on Caligula, 55.2.

  807. Supinis manibus, “with hands uplifted,” to the gods in gratitude.

  808. See Augustus, 32.2.

  809. See Augustus, 73 and the note. See also Seneca, De Tranquillitate Animi 1.5, placet⁠ ⁠… non ex arcula prolata vestis⁠ ⁠… sed domestica et vilis, nec servata nec sumenda sollicite.

  810. Vienne, on the Rhone.

  811. See Vitellius, 18 below.

  812. In deserting Galba for Otho.

  813. Modern Cologne.

  814. See note on Caligula, 54.2. The connection suggests an orgy in celebration of his victory.

  815. A day of special ill omen because of the defeat by the Gauls in 390 BC

  816. Dominicus (liber) was the name applied to a collection of Nero’s compositions.

  817. A drink made of sour wine or vinegar mixed with water.

  818. The ientaculum was ordinarily a very light breakfast; Vitellius made a banquet of it.

  819. Probably referring to the colossal statue of Athena Promachos on the Acropolis at Athens. Pliny, Natural History XXXV.163 ff., says that the platter cost a million sesterces, and that to make it a special furnace was built in the open fields.

  820. That is, from the eastern to the western limits of the Roman world.

  821. See Caligula, 54.2.

  822. Vernaculus and verna are used by Martial 10.3.1 and 1.41.2 in the sense of “buffoons,” a meaning derived from the proverbial insolence of the vernae, or home-born slaves. The connection of the word here with mathematicis, and the fact that only the astrologers are mentioned in what follows, would seem to imply that the lampoons of these jesters contained predictions about Vitellius.

  823. That is, the astrologers, for whom Chaldaei became a general term.

  824. See note on Julius, 80.2.

  825. As a sign that he was willing to renounce the power of life and death over the people; Tacitus Histories 3. 68.

  826. Vitellius, 9, above.

  827. Gallus means “a cock,” as well as “a Gaul.”

  828. See note on Galba, 10.3.

  829. A duty (portorium) of two and a half percent on imports and exports; cf. Julius, 43.1.

  830. A position held by tried and skilful officers, especially centurions of the first grade (primipili; CIL III.6809, etc.) Cf. Vegetius, Epitoma rei militaris 2.10, is post longam probatamque militiam peritissimus omnium legebatur, ut recte doceret alios quod ipse cum laude fecisset.

  831. The anteambulo was the client who walked before his patron on the street and compelled people to make way for him; cf. Epigrams of Martial 2.18.5, tumidique anteambulo regis, where regis means “patron,” as in Horace Epistles 1.17.43 and elsewhere.

  832. See Caligula, 48 and 49.

  833. Lepidus and Gaetulicus; see Claudius, 9.1.

  834. The senate.

  835. See note on Augustus, 47.

  836. See Claudius, 17.

  837. The Isle of Wight.

  838. Mango (cf. Greek μάγγανον, “charm”) was the term applied to a dealer in slaves, cattle, or wares, to which he tried to give an appearance of greater value than they actually possessed. The nickname applied to Vespasian implies that his trade was in mules.

  839. See Nero, 22. ff.

  840. Probably of auxiliaries.

  841. The hand was typical of power, and manus is often used in the sense of potestas.

  842. Of Nero’s lodging.

  843. July 11; according to Tacitus Histories 2.79, it was the fifth day before the Nones, July 3.

  844. Governor of the neighbouring province of Syria.

  845. The strategic importance of Egypt is shown by Tacitus Annals 2.59; see Julius, 35.1 (at the end); Augustus, 18.2.

  846. The freedman’s name, connected with Greek βασιλεύς, “king,” was an additional omen.

  847. They were stationed at Ostia and Puteoli as a fire brigade (see Claudius, 25.2), and the various divisions were on duty now in one town, now in the other, and again in Rome.

  848. Literally, “on his own neck;” in a basket.

  849. The Colosseum, known as the Flavian amphitheatre until the Middle Ages.

  850. That is, a citizen could return the abuse of another citizen, regardless of their respective ranks.

  851. During the civil wars.

  852. See note on Augustus, 36.

  853. In the legal sense; filii familiarum were sons who were still under the control of their fathers, regardless of their age; cf. Tiberius, 15.2.

  854. His tribunician power was reckoned from July 1, 69, the day when he was proclaimed emperor by the army. The meaning of the sentence is not clear.

  855. See Claudius, 35.

  856. See Vespasian, 6.4. He boasted that the rule had been at his disposal and that he had given it to Vespasian; see Tacitus Histories 4.4.

  857. Implying that Mucianus was effeminate and unchaste.

  858. A made-up name from morbus, “illness;” the expression is equivalent to “go to the devil.”

  859. That is, in their superscriptions; see note on Tiberius, 32.2.

  860. Cogere (redigere) in ordinem is used of one who resists or does not show proper respect to a magistrate; that is, attempts to reduce him to the level of an ordinary citizen. It seems to have been originally a military expression. Cf. Claudius, 38.1; Pliny, Epistles 1.23.1; Livy, 3.51.13.

  861. This had been increased to 1,200,000 sesterces by Augustus.

  862. See note on Augustus, 41.2.

  863. Doubtless referring to the statue of Venus consecrated by Vespasian in his temple of Peace, the sculptor of which, according to Pliny, was unknown. The Venus of Cos was the work of Praxiteles.

  864. The colossal statue of Nero; see Nero, 31.1.

  865. See Augustus, 74 and the note.

  866. See note on Caligula, 55.2.

  867. The Matronalia or feast of married women; see Horace Odes, 3.8.1.

  868. A transliterated Greek word, κυβιοσάκτης, meaning “dealer in square pieces (κύβοι) of salt fish.”

  869. According to Celsus, 2.1, quadratum is applied to a well-proportioned body, neither slender nor fat.

  870. Cf. Macrobius, Saturn 2.1.9, impudica et praetextata verba; Gellius, Noctes Atticae 9.10.4, non praetextatis sed puris honestisque verbis. Various explanations of the term are given. It perhaps means words such as boys use; but see Festus, s.v. praetextum sermonem.

  871. Plaustra was the urban form of the word for “wagons,” but there was also a plebeian form plostra; see Horace, Horatii Flacci Sermonum 1.6.42 and cf. Claudius, Clodius. The original form was plostra.

  872. Iliad 7.213.

  873. Menander, Fr. 223.2, Koch.

  874. Of Augustus; see Augustus, 100.4.

  875. The connection between the stella crinita and the long hair of the Parthian king is obvious; it does not seem accidental that Calvina is connected with calvus, “bald,” though this wordplay seems to have been overlooked.

  876. Claudius and Nero reigned thirteen and fourteen years respectively; Vespasian, ten; Titus, two; and Domitian, fifteen.

  877. Some building of seven stories; the famous Septizonium on the Palatine was the work of Septimius Severus.

  878. Cf. Nero, 33.2 and 3.

  879. See Galba, 14.2 and note.

  880. By the accession of his father Vespasian.

  881. See Augustus, 13.2.

  882. See Nero, 15.2, and note a.

  883. See note on Vespasian, 9.

  884. See Augustus, 43.1.

  885. When the water had been let out; cf. Nero, 27.2.

  886. By humorously pretending to wrangle with those who favoured other gladiators than the Thracians.

  887. Implying that it was his personal loss, which he would make good.

  888. To propitiate the gods, who were supposed to inflict such evils upon mankind by way of punishment.

  889. The office was seldom taken so seriously. Julius Caesar, for instance, held it during his campaign in Gaul.

  890. The weapons of gladiators were regularly examined by the editor, or giver of the games, to see if they were sharp enough; cf. Dio, 68.3, who tells a similar story of the emperor Nerva.

  891. Possibly Domitian’s charge was true; cf. Domitian, 2.3.

  892. The old homestead at Cutiliae, near Reate; see Vespasian, 24.

  893. Various quarters and streets of the city were designated in this way; cf. ad Capita Bubula, Augustus, 5; ad Pirum, Epigrams of Martial 1.117.6. Ad Malum Punicum was a street on the Quirinal hill, probably corresponding with the modern Via delle Quattro Fontane; see Platner, Topography of Rome, p. 485.

  894. Cf. Otho, 12.1, at the end.

  895. See note on Galba, 1.

  896. As son of the emperor.

  897. That is, in the provinces.

  898. He was but eighteen years old at the time.

  899. The usual procedure for a youthful prince; cf. Tiberius, 6.4.

  900. See note on Galba, 6.1. The reference is to his consulships before he became emperor; see Domitian, 13.3.

  901. That is, twice as large as his brother’s.

  902. Titus had the ability to do this; cf. Titus, 3.2, at the end.

  903. See Domitian, 9 and 11.1.

  904. See note on Vespasian, 9.1.

  905. See note on Claudius, 21.2.

  906. See note on Claudius, 21.3.

  907. As well as in poetry.

  908. Established for the worship of the deified Flavian emperors, after the manner of the Augustales; see note on Claudius, 6.2.

  909. See Augustus, 71.3.

  910. While the spectators remained in their seats; cf. Dio, 67.4.

  911. Represented in many cases by tesserae, or tickets; see note on Augustus, 41.2.

  912. In 80; it had previously been destroyed by fire in 69; see Vitellius, 15.3.

  913. Who finished and dedicated it; it was also called the Forum Transitorium because it connected the Forum of Augustus with the Forum Pacis, as well as the Subura with the Forum Romanum. It occupied a part of the Argiletum.

  914. Or Music Hall.

  915. See Domitian, 4.2.

  916. Tacitus Agricola 39 says that his unjustified triumph over the Germans (and the Dacians) was a laughingstock.

  917. See Nero, 16.2.

  918. See Augustus, 74.

  919. See Caligula, 55.2.

  920. See Domitian, 14.2.

  921. That is, those which had formerly been restricted to the senatorial order.

  922. Where the soldiers deposited their surplus money with the general for safe keeping, until the end of their term of service; see Vegetius 2.20 and for fuller details Grenfell, Hunt, and Hogarth, Fayoum Towns and Their Papyri, pp. 252 ff., where the accounts of two soldiers of about the year 180 are published.

  923. That is, raised the amount from nine to twelve aurei. The aureus contained 100 sesterces and was equal to a little over a pound sterling, or five dollars.

  924. That is, to gain favour with influential men or their advocates; cf. Tiberius, 33.

  925. Cf. Nero, 17.

  926. That is, all who sat in judgment on the same case.

  927. As censor.

  928. De nefanda Venere.

  929. Georgicon 2.537.

  930. Probably referring to new senators, entering the House for the first time.

  931. Nothing is known of this law. Livy, 21.63.3⁠–⁠4 mentions a law of Q. Claudius, which forbade senators to engage in business, and that law may have had a chapter referring to the scribae quaestorii and other “civil servants;” or, as some suppose, Publius Clodius may have passed such a law.

  932. That is, charges which resulted in the confiscation of the goods of the accused to the privy purse.

  933. See Domitian, 3.1.

  934. Implying unfairness on the part of Domitian, who favoured the Thracians; cf. Pliny, Panegyricus Traiani. XI and XXXIII.

  935. There is an added insult in parmularius, “one armed with the buckler,” “a Thracian,” as applied to a Roman citizen (pater familias).

  936. See Domitian, 1.3.

  937. Part of a course of training; cf. Nero, 20.1.

  938. See Nero, 49.2.

  939. A tax of two drachmas a head, imposed by Titus in return for free permission to practise their religion; see Josephus, De Bello Judaico 7.6.6.

  940. These were doubtless Christians, whom the Romans commonly confounded with the Jews.

  941. See Vespasian, 3.

  942. Iliad, 2.204.

  943. Pulvinar here means the couch for the images of the gods; cf. Augustus, 45.1.

  944. See Domitian, 4.5.

  945. See note on Augustus, 53.1.

  946. See Domitian, 4.4.

  947. Arci is a transliteration of the Greek word ἀρκεῖ with a pun on its resemblance in sound to arcus, “arch.”

  948. See Domitian, 7.2.

  949. Cf. Ovid, Fasti, 1.357.

  950. A toga ornamented with horizontal stripes of purple, worn by knights on public occasions, as well as by the early kings and the consuls; Tacitus Annals 3.2; Val. Max. 3.2.9.

  951. According to Pliny, Natural History XXXVI.163, a hard, white, translucent stone discovered in Cappadocia in the reign of Nero. According to Tzetzes, On Lycophron 98, φεγγίτης= σεληνίτης, “moonstone.” Pliny also mentions similar mirrors of black obsidian; Natural History XXXVI.196.

  952. Cf. Nero, 40.2.

  953. Cf. Nero, 49.4.

  954. It was evidently on a metal plate, attached to the marble base.

  955. See Vespasian, 5.4.

  956. Fortuna Primigenia; cf. Tiberius, 43.1.

  957. Including the burning of the body, to prevent the fulfilment of the prophecy.

  958. Niece of Domitian.

  959. See Augustus, 7.1.

  960. This in its connection suggests the blush of modesty, but cf. Tacitus Agricola 45, ille vultus et rubor quo se contra pudorem muniebat; and in general, Seneca Epistles 11.3. Doubtless Domitian’s ruddy complexion was a recommendation in his youth.

  961. Iliad, 21.108.

  962. Cf. Titus, 5.2. The bow and arrow were not included by the Romans in the term arma.

  963. Cf. Domitian, 2.2.

  964. The great library of Ptolemy Philadelphus at Alexandria was destroyed during Caesar’s Alexandrine war. The Pergamene library was given by Antony to Cleopatra and transferred to Alexandria, where it was kept in the temple of Serapis. It was frequently damaged during civil disturbances. Burman thinks that the reference is to the latter; but the plural suggests both.

  965. Named after C. Matius, a friend of Augustus and a writer on cookery and gardening.

  966. Cf. Juvenal II.32 f.

  967. Votive shields, adorned with the emperor’s image; see Caligula, 16.4.

  968. The Capitoline hill was sometimes called mons Tarpeius, from the Tarpeian Rock at its southwest corner. It was not, however, the original name of the hill, as some Roman antiquarians supposed.