1. Dedication to the Aeneis.

  2. There have been added also in the Third Edition remarks on other subjects. A list of the most important of these additions is given at the end of this Preface.

  3. Compare Bentley’s Works (Dyce’s Edition), volume II 136 following, 222.

  4. Compare the striking remark of the great Scaliger respecting the Magna moralia:⁠—Haec non sunt Aristotelis, tamen utitur auctor Aristotelis nomine tanquam suo.

  5. See Journal of Philology XIII 38, and elsewhere.

  6. Compare Cicero Tusculan Disputations, III 8, 16, “σωφροσύνη, quam soleo equidem tum temperantiam, tum moderationem appellare, nonnunquam etiam modestiam:” following.

  7. The English reader has to observe that the word “make” (ποιεῖν), in Greek, has also the sense of “do” (πράττειν).

  8. Reading, according to Heusde’s conjecture, δμολογήσοντός σοι.

  9. Socrates is intending to show that science differs from the object of science, as any other relative differs from the object of relation. But where there is comparison⁠—greater, less, heavier, lighter, and the like⁠—a relation to self as well as to other things involves an absolute contradiction; and in other cases, as in the case of the senses, is hardly conceivable. The use of the genitive after the comparative in Greek, μεῖζόν τινος, creates an unavoidable obscurity in the translation.

  10. Omitting φιλῇ, or reading μισῇ instead.

  11. Iliad XXIV 348.

  12. Compare Republic X 600 D.

  13. Odyssey XI 601 following.

  14. Odyssey XI 582 following.

  15. Borrowed by Milton, Paradise Lost, VIII 2, 3.

  16. Reading ὑμῖν.

  17. Iliad XXI 308.

  18. Works and Days, 264 following.

  19. Reading φιλεῖν καὶ ἐπαινεῖν καὶ φίλον τινὶ κ.τ.λ.

  20. Iliad X 224.

  21. Or, according to the arrangement of Stallbaum:⁠—

    Crito: Neither of them are known to me.

    Socrates: They are a new importation of Sophists, as I should imagine.

    Crito: Of what country, etc.

  22. Omitting σοφοί.

  23. Note: the ambiguity of δυνατὰ δρᾶν, “things visible and able to see,” σιγῶντα λέγειν, “the speaking of the silent,” the silent denoting either the speaker or the subject of the speech, cannot be perfectly rendered in English. Compare Aristotle Sophistici elenchi, c. IV. (Poste’s translation, p. 9):⁠—

    “Of ambiguous propositions the following are instances:⁠—

    “I hope that you the enemy may slay.

    “Whom one knows, he knows. Either the person knowing or the person known is here affirmed to know.

    “What one sees, that one sees: one sees a pillar: ergo, that one pillar sees.

    “What you are holding, that you are: you are holding a stone: ergo, a stone you are.

    “Is a speaking of the silent possible?’ ‘The silent’ denotes either the speaker or the subject of speech.

    “There are three kinds of ambiguity of term or proposition. The first is when there is an equal linguistic propriety in several interpretations; the second when one is improper but customary; the third when the ambiguity arises in the combination of elements that are in themselves unambiguous, as in ‘knowing letters.’ ‘Knowing’ and ‘letters’ are perhaps separately unambiguous, but in combination may imply either that the letters are known, or that they themselves have knowledge. Such are the modes in which propositions and terms may be ambiguous.”

  24. Compare W. Humboldt, Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues; M. Müller, Lectures on the Science of Language; Steinthal, Einleitung in die Psychologie und Sprachwissenschaft.

  25. Compare Plato, Laws, III 676:⁠—

    Athenian Stranger: And what then is to be regarded as the origin of government? Will not a man be able to judge best from a point of view in which he may behold the progress of states and their transitions to good and evil?

    Cleinias: What do you mean?

    Athenian Stranger: I mean that he might watch them from the point of view of time, and observe the changes which take place in them during infinite ages.

    Cleinias: How so?

    Athenian Stranger: Why, do you think that you can reckon the time which has elapsed since cities first existed and men were citizens of them?

    Cleinias: Hardly.

    Athenian Stranger: But you are quite sure that it must be vast and incalculable?

    Cleinias: No doubt.

    Athenian Stranger: And have there not been thousands and thousands of cities which have come into being and perished during this period? And has not every place had endless forms of government, and been sometimes rising, and at other times falling, and again improving or waning?”

    Aristotle Metaphysics XI 8. 21:⁠—

    “And if a person should conceive the tales of mythology to mean only that men thought the gods to be the first essences of things, he would deem the reflection to have been inspired and would consider that, whereas probably every art and part of wisdom had been discovered and lost many times over, such notions were but a remnant of the past which has survived to our day.”

  26. Compare again W. Humboldt, Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues; M. Müller, Lectures on the Science of Language; Steinthal, Einleitung in die Psychologie und Sprachwissenschaft: and for the latter part of the Essay, Delbrück, Study of Language; Paul’s Principles of the History of Language: to the latter work the author of this Essay is largely indebted.

  27. “Truth” was the title of the book of Protagoras; compare “Theaetetus” 161 E.

  28. Compare Iliad II 813, 814:⁠—

    “The hill which men call Batieia and the immortals the tomb of the sportive Myrina.”

  29. Iliad VI 402.

  30. Reading οὗ ἄν.

  31. Ἀγαμέμνων = ἀγαστὸς μένων.

  32. Hesiod, Works and Days, 120 following.

  33. Iliad XIV 201, 302:⁠—the line is not found in the extant works of Hesiod.

  34. Compare Republic III 386, 387.

  35. Omitting πολύ.

  36. There seems to be some error in the MSS. The meaning is that the word θεονόα = θεουνόα is a curtailed form of θεοῦ νόησις, but the omitted letters do not agree.

  37. Omitting τὺ δὲ λέγειν δή ἐστιν εἴρειν.

  38. Reading ἐμβάλλοντας δεῖ τὸ ε: compare infra, 437 A.

  39. Iliad VI 265.

  40. Reading θεῷ.

  41. Letters which are neither vowels nor semivowels.

  42. Cf. “Phaedrus,” 271.

  43. Vide supra, 414 C.

  44. Reading τŵ λέγειν; cf. infra, τῶ διαλέγεσθαι.

  45. Reading ταὐτά.

  46. Reading ὑπόσχες εἰπεῖν.

  47. In the original, λίγειαι, Λίγυες.

  48. Reading ἀγωγῆ.

  49. In allusion to a game in which two parties fled or pursued according as an oyster⁠–⁠shell which was thrown into the air fell with the dark or light side uppermost.

  50. Compare “Cratylus” 388 following.

  51. Translated by Cicero Tusculanae quaestiones s. 24.

  52. The philosopher alone is not subject to judgment (κρίσις), for he has never lost the vision of truth.

  53. Or, reading πτερόφοιτον, “the movement of wings.”

  54. Or with grey and blood⁠–⁠shot eyes.

  55. Omitting εἰς ταὐτὸν ἄγει τὴν φιλίαν.

  56. See 234 C.

  57. A proverb, like “the grapes are sour,” applied to pleasures which cannot be had, meaning sweet things which, like the elbow, are out of the reach of the mouth. The promised pleasure turns out to be a long and tedious affair.

  58. Compare “Charmides,” 156 C.

  59. Compare 259 E.

  60. Iliad XXIII 335.

  61. Iliad XI 638, 630.

  62. Iliad XXIV 80.

  63. Odyssey XX 351.

  64. Iliad XII 200.

  65. Compare Bacon’s Essays, 8:⁠—“Certainly the best works and of greatest merit for the public have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men; which both in affection and means have married and endowed the public.”

  66. Probably a play of words on φαλαρός, “bald⁠–⁠headed.”

  67. Iliad II 408, and XVII 588.

  68. Iliad X 224.

  69. Compare “Protagoras” 347.

  70. Compare Republic V 468 D.

  71. Compare Aristotle Politics, V 11. § 15.

  72. Compare Aristotle Politics II 4, § 6.

  73. Compare Aristotle Politics II 2, § 3.

  74. A fragment of the Sthenoboea of Euripides.

  75. Odyssey, λ. 632.

  76. Euripides Hippolytus, l. 612.

  77. Compare I Alcibiades.”

  78. Compare “Gorgias,” 505 E.

  79. Supra, 195 A.

  80. P. 205 E.

  81. Supra 212 D. Will you have a very drunken man? etc.

  82. From Pope’s Homer, II, XI 514.

  83. Compare Aristotle Politics VIII 5. 16.

  84. In allusion to the two proverbs, οῖνος καὶ παῖδες ἀληθεῖς, and οῖνος καὶ ἀλήθεια.

  85. Compare supra, 175 B.

  86. Aristophanes Clouds, 362.

  87. Compare “Gorgias” 490, 491, 517.

  88. Butler’s Analogy.

  89. Compare Aristotle Politics I 13, § 10.

  90. Compare “Theaetetus” 146 D.

  91. Compare Aristotle Posterior Analytics I I 6.

  92. Or, whether a certain area is capable of being inscribed as a triangle in a certain circle.

  93. Or, when you apply it to the given line, i.e. the diameter of the circle (αὐτοῦ).

  94. Or, similar to the area so applied.

  95. Theognis 33 and following

  96. Theognis 435 and following

  97. Compare “Euthyphro” 11 B.

  98. Compare “1 Alcibiades” 111 following.

  99. Or, I am certain that I am right in taking this course.

  100. Aristophanes, Clouds, 225 and following

  101. Probably in allusion to Aristophanes who caricatured, and to Euripides who borrowed the notions of Anaxagoras, as well as to other dramatic poets.

  102. Homer, Iliad IX 363.

  103. Compare “Apology” 37 C, D.

  104. Compare “Apology” 30 C.

  105. E.g. compare Republic I 335 E.

  106. Compare “Phaedrus” 230 C.

  107. Compare “Apology” 37 D.

  108. But compare Republic X 611 A.

  109. Compare “Meno” 83 and following.

  110. Compare “Apology” 40 E.

  111. Compare Milton, Comus, 463 following:⁠—

    “But when lust,
    By unchaste looks, loose gestures, and foul talk,
    But most by lewd and lavish act of sin,
    Lets in defilement to the inward parts,
    The soul grows clotted by contagion,
    Imbodies, and imbrutes, till she quite lose,
    The divine property of her first being.
    Such are those thick and gloomy shadows damp
    Oft seen in charnel vaults and sepulchres,
    Lingering, and sitting by a new made grave,
    As loath to leave the body that it lov’d,
    And linked itself by carnal sensuality
    To a degenerate and degraded state.”

  112. Compare Republic X 619 C.

  113. Compare Rev., esp. 18:21 and following.

  114. Compare the following: “Now, and for us, it is a time to Hellenize and to praise knowing; for we have Hebraized too much and have overvalued doing. But the habits and discipline received from Hebraism remain for our race an eternal possession. And as humanity is constituted, one must never assign the second rank today without being ready to restore them to the first tomorrow.” —⁠Sir William W. Hunter, Preface to Orissa

  115. Omitting the words τὸν ῥητορικὸν δίκαιον εἶναι and δὲ in next clause.

  116. There is an untranslatable play on the name “Polus,” which means “a colt.”

  117. Compare Republic IX 579, 580.

  118. Compare Republic II 359.

  119. Fragment Incert. 151 (Böckh).

  120. Antiope, fragment 20 (Dindorf).

  121. Compare what is said of Gorgias by Callicles at 482.

  122. Compare Republic I 348.

  123. Compare “Phaedrus” 250 C.

  124. An untranslateable pun⁠—διὰ τὸ πιθανόν τε καὶ πιστικὸν ὠνόμασε πίθον.

  125. Or, “I am in profound earnest.”

  126. Compare Republic IV 436.

  127. Compare Republic III 392 following.

  128. Compare Laws VI 752 A.

  129. P. 485.

  130. Compare Republic, 9 578 and following.

  131. Compare Republic III 407 E.

  132. Compare “Symposium” 216: “1 Alcibiades” 135.

  133. Reading with the majority of MSS. πράξοντες.

  134. Compare “Protagoras” 328.

  135. Iliad XV 187. following

  136. Compare Republic X 615 E.

  137. Odyssey XI 569.

  138. Compare Sir G. C. Lewis in the Classical Museum, vol. II p. 1.

  139. Politics v. 12, § 8:⁠—“He only says that nothing is abiding, but that all things change in a certain cycle; and that the origin of the change is a base of numbers which are in the ratio of 4 ∶ 3; and this when combined with a figure of five gives two harmonies; he means when the number of this figure becomes solid.”

  140. The Platonic Tetractys consisted of a series of seven terms, 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 8, 27.

  141. “Having a desire to see those ancients who were most renowned for wit and learning, I set apart one day on purpose. I proposed that Homer and Aristotle might appear at the head of all their commentators; but these were so numerous that some hundreds were forced to attend in the court and outward rooms of the palace. I knew, and could distinguish these two heroes, at first sight, not only from the crowd, but from each other. Homer was the tailer and comelier person of the two, walked very erect for one of his age, and his eyes were the most quick and piercing I ever beheld. Aristotle stooped much, and made use of a staff. His visage was meagre, his hair lank and thin, and his voice hollow. I soon discovered that both of them were perfect strangers to the rest of the company, and had never seen or heard of them before. And I had a whisper from a ghost, who shall be nameless, ‘That these commentators always kept in the most distant quarters from their principals, in the lower world, through a consciousness of shame and guilt, because they had so horribly misrepresented the meaning of these authors to posterity.’ I introduced Didymus and Eustathius to Homer, and prevailed on him to treat them better than perhaps they deserved, for he soon found they wanted a genius to enter into the spirit of a poet. But Aristotle was out of all patience with the account I gave him of Scotus and Ramns, as I presented them to him; and he asked them ‘whether the rest of the tribe were as great dunces as themselves?’ ”

  142. “Howbeit, I think this was no small help and furtherance in the matter, that they heard us say that Christ instituted among his, all things common, and that the same community doth yet remain in the rightest Christian communities” (Utopia, English Reprints, p. 144).

  143. “These things (I say), when I consider with myself, I hold well with Plato, and do nothing marvel that he would make no laws for them that refused those laws, whereby all men should have and enjoy equal portions of riches and commodities. For the wise men did easily foresee this to be the one and only way to the wealth of a community, if equality of all things should be brought in and established” (Utopia, English Reprints, p. 67, 68).

  144. “One of our company in my presence was sharply punished. He, as soon as he was baptised, began, against our wills, with more earnest affection than wisdom, to reason of Christ’s religion, and began to wax so hot in his matter, that he did not only prefer our religion before all other, but also did despise and condemn all other, calling them profane, and the followers of them wicked and devilish, and the children of everlasting damnation. When he had thus long reasoned the matter, they laid hold on him, accused him, and condemned him into exile, not as a despiser of religion, but as a seditious person and a raiser up of dissension among the people” (p. 145).

  145. Compare his satirical observation: “They (the Utopians) have priests of exceeding holiness, and therefore very few” (p. 150).

  146. When the ambassadors came arrayed in gold and peacocks’ feathers “to the eyes of all the Utopians except very few, which had been in other countries for some reasonable cause, all that gorgeousness of apparel seemed shameful and reproachful. In so much that they most reverently saluted the vilest and most abject of them for lords⁠—passing over the ambassadors themselves without any honour, judging them by their wearing of golden chains to be bondmen. You should have seen children also, that had cast away their pearls and precious stones, when they saw the like sticking upon the ambassadors’ caps, dig and push their mothers under the sides, saying thus to them⁠—‘Look, mother, how great a lubber doth yet wear pearls and precious stones, as though he were a little child still.’ But the mother; yea and that also in good earnest: ‘Peace, son,’ saith she, ‘I think he be some of the ambassadors’ fools’ ” (p. 102).

  147. Compare an exquisite passage at p. 35, of which the conclusion is as follows: “And verily it is naturally given⁠ ⁠… suppressed and ended.”

  148. “For they have not devised one of all those rules of restrictions, amplifications, and suppositions, very wittily invented in the small Logicals, which here our children in every place do learn. Furthermore, they were never yet able to find out the second intentions; insomuch that none of them all could ever see man himself in common, as they call him, though he be (as you know) bigger than was ever any giant, yea, and pointed to of us even with our finger” (p. 105).

  149. “And yet the most part of them is more dissident from the manners of the world now a days, than my communication was. But preachers, sly and wily men, following your counsel (as I suppose) because they saw men evil-willing to frame their manners to Christ’s rule, they have wrested and wried his doctrine, and, like a rule of lead, have applied it to men’s manners, that by some means at the least way, they might agree together” (p. 66).

  150. Bendis, the Thracian Artemis.

  151. Reading φυλάξασθαι καὶ λαθεῖν, οὗτος, κτλ.

  152. Reading Γύνῃ τῷ Κροίσου τοῦ Λυδοῦ προγόνῳ.

  153. Seven Against Thebes, 574.

  154. Hesiod, Works and Days, 230.

  155. Homer, Odyssey XIX 109.

  156. Eumolpus.

  157. Hesiod, Works and Days, 287.

  158. Homer, Iliad, IX 493.

  159. Hesiod, Theogony, 154, 459.

  160. Placing the comma after γρανσί, and not after γιγνομένοις.

  161. Iliad XXIV 527.

  162. Iliad II 69.

  163. Iliad XX.

  164. Homer Odyssey XVII 485.

  165. Omitting κατὰ φαντασίας.

  166. From a lost play.

  167. Odyssey XI 489.

  168. Iliad XX 64.

  169. Iliad XXIII 103.

  170. Odyssey X 495.

  171. Iliad XVI 856.

  172. Iliad XXIII 100.

  173. Odyssey XXIV 6.

  174. Iliad XXIV 10.

  175. Iliad XVIII 23.

  176. Iliad XXII 414.

  177. Iliad XVIII 54.

  178. Iliad XXII 168.

  179. Iliad XVI 433.

  180. Iliad I 599.

  181. Odyssey XVII 383 sq.

  182. Or, “if his words are accompanied by actions.”

  183. Iliad IV 412.

  184. Odyssey III 8.

  185. Odyssey IV 431.

  186. Odyssey I 225.

  187. Odyssey IX 8.

  188. Odyssey XII 342.

  189. Iliad XIV 281.

  190. Odyssey VIII 266.

  191. Odyssey XX 17.

  192. Quoted by Suidas as attributed to Hesiod.

  193. Iliad IX 515.

  194. Iliad XXIV 175.

  195. Cf. infra, X 595.

  196. Iliad XXII 15 sq.

  197. Iliad XXI 130, 223 sq.

  198. Iliad XXIII 151.

  199. Iliad XXII 394.

  200. Iliad XXIII 175.

  201. From the Niobe of Aeschylus.

  202. I.e. the four notes of the tetrachord.

  203. Socrates expresses himself carelessly in accordance with his assumed ignorance of the details of the subject. In the first part of the sentence he appears to be speaking of paeonic rhythms which are in the ratio of ³⁄₂; in the second part, of dactylic and anapaestic rhythms, which are in the ratio of ¹⁄₁; in the last clause, of iambic and trochaic rhythms, which are in the ratio of ½ or ²⁄₁.

  204. Compare supra, II 368 D.

  205. Making the answer of Socrates begin at καὶ γὰρ πρὸς κ.τ.λ.

  206. Iliad IV 218.

  207. Compare Laws, 663 E.

  208. Or, “that for their own good you are making these people miserable.”

  209. Odyssey I 352.

  210. Reading μὴ δεῖν ἀντιπράττειν, without a comma after δεῖν.

  211. Odyssey XX 17, quoted supra, III 390 D.

  212. Reading προστατήσετον with Bekker; or, if the reading προστήσετον, which is found in the MSS., be adopted, then the nominative must be supplied from the previous sentence: “Music and gymnastic will place in authority over⁠ ⁠…” This is very awkward, and the awkwardness is increased by the necessity of changing the subject at τηρήσετον.

  213. Reading ἔτι ἐγὼ εἶπον.

  214. Or inserting καὶ before νομίμων: “a deceiver about beauty or goodness or principles of justice or law.”

  215. Reading ὥστε εὖ με παραμυθεῖ.

  216. Reading with Paris A. καὶ καλοῦ⁠ ⁠…

  217. Reading ἰατρὸν μὲν καὶ ἰατρικὸν τὴν ψυχὴν ὄντα.

  218. Pages 419, 420 and following

  219. Iliad, VII 321.

  220. Iliad, VIII 162.

  221. Probably Works and Days, 121 following.

  222. Reading στραγγευομένῳ.

  223. Or, applying ὅπως δὲ κνβερνήσει to the mutineers, “But only understanding (ἐπαΐοντας) that he (the mutinous pilot) must rule in spite of other people, never considering that there is an art of command which may be practised in combination with the pilot’s art.”

  224. Or, taking παρὰ in another sense, “trained to virtue on their principles.”

  225. Putting a comma after τῶν ἀνανγκαίων.

  226. Or “will they not deserve to be called sophisms,”⁠ ⁠…

  227. Heracleitus said that the sun was extinguished every evening and relighted every morning.

  228. Reading κατηκόῳ or κατηκόοις.

  229. Reading ἦ καὶ ἐὰν οὕτω θεῶνται without a question, and ἀλλοίαν τοι: or, retaining the question and taking ἀλλοίαν δόξαν in a new sense: “Do you mean to say really that, viewing him in this light, they will be of another mind from yours, and answer in another strain?”

  230. Compare IV 435 D.

  231. Or, separating καὶ μάλα from ἄξιον, “True, he said, and a noble thought”: or ἄξιον τὸ διανόημα may be a gloss.

  232. Reading ἀνὴρ καλός: or reading ἀνὴρ καλῶς, “I quite well knew from the very first, that you, etc.

  233. A play upon τόκος, which means both “offspring” and “interest.”

  234. Reading διανοοῦ.

  235. Reading ἄνισα.

  236. Reading ὧνπερ ἐκεῖνο εἰκόνων.

  237. Reading παρόντα.

  238. In allusion to a game in which two parties fled or pursued according as an oyster-shell which was thrown into the air fell with the dark or light side uppermost.

  239. Reading οὐ̑σαν ἐπάνοδον.

  240. Meaning either (1) that they integrate the number because they deny the possibility of fractions; or (2) that division is regarded by them as a process of multiplication, for the fractions of one continue to be units.

  241. Or, “close alongside of their neighbour’s instruments, as if to catch a sound from them.”

  242. Omitting ἐνταῦθα δὲ πρὸς φαντάσματα. The word θεῖα is bracketed by Stallbaum.

  243. A play upon the word νόμος, which means both “law” and “strain.”

  244. γραμμάς, literally “lines,” probably the starting-point of a racecourse.

  245. I.e. a cyclical number, such as 6, which is equal to the sum of its divisors 1, 2, 3, so that when the circle or time represented by 6 is completed, the lesser times or rotations represented by 1, 2, 3 are also completed.

  246. Probably the numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 of which the three first = the sides of the Pythagorean triangle. The terms will then be 33, 43, 53, which together = 63 = 216.

  247. Or the first a square which is 100 × 100 = 10,000. The whole number will then be 17,500 = a square of 100, and an oblong of 100 by 75.

  248. Reading προμήκη δέ.

  249. Or, “consisting of two numbers squared upon irrational diameters,” etc. = 100. For other explanations of the passage see Introduction.

  250. Compare supra 544 C.

  251. Omitting ἤ τινος.

  252. Reading καὶ ἐτίμα μάλιστα. Εὖ, ἦ δ’ ἐγώ, according to Schneider’s excellent emendation.

  253. Omitting τί μήν; ἔφη.

  254. Or, “the philosophical temper of the condemned.”

  255. Herodotus I 55.

  256. Or, “opinions or appetites such as are deemed to be good.”

  257. Reading with Grasere and Hermann τί οἰώμεθα, and omitting οὺδὲν, which is not found in the best MSS.

  258. 729 nearly equals the number of days and nights in the year.

  259. Or “take up his abode there.”

  260. Omitting εἰς.

  261. Or, “with his nouns and verbs.”

  262. Reading εἰδωλοποιοῦντα⁠ ⁠… ἀφεστῶτα.

  263. Or, if we accept Madvig’s ingenious but unnecessary emendation ᾀσόμεθα, “At all events we will sing, that” etc.

  264. Reading ἀπελυσάμεθα.

  265. Reading ἡμῶν.

  266. Reading αὐτόχειρας.

  267. Reading καὶ ὅτι.

  268. Reading εἰκοστήν.

  269. Or “which are akin to these”; or τούτοις may be taken with ἐν ἅπασι.

  270. Or “which, though unrecorded in history, Critias declared, on the authority of Solon, to be an actual fact?”

  271. Observe that Plato gives the same date (9,000 years ago) for the foundation of Athens and for the repulse of the invasion from Atlantis. (“Critias” 108 E).

  272. Reading τὸ τῶν θηρευτῶν.

  273. Omitting αὐ̑ πέρι.

  274. E.g. 1,⁴⁄₃,³⁄₂, 2,⁸⁄₃, 3, 4,¹⁶⁄₃, 8; and 1,³⁄₂, 2, 3,⁹⁄₂, 6, 9,²⁷⁄₂, 18, 27.

  275. E.g. 243 ∶ 256 ∶∶ ⁸¹⁄₆₄ ∶ ⁴⁄₃ ∶∶ ²⁴³⁄₁₂₈ ∶ 2 ∶∶ ⁸¹⁄₃₂ ∶ ⁸⁄₃ ∶∶ ²⁴³⁄₆₄ ∶ 4 ∶∶ ⁸¹⁄₁₆ ∶ ¹⁶⁄₃ ∶∶ ²⁴²⁄₃₂ ∶ 8. (Martin.)

  276. I.e. of the rectangular figure supposed to be inscribed in the circle of the Same.

  277. I.e. across the rectangular figure from corner to corner.

  278. Compare “Parmenides” 141.

  279. Or “circling.”

  280. Reading τοῖς οὐ δυν, and τούτων αὐτῶν.

  281. He is speaking of two kinds of mirrors, first the plane, secondly the concave; and the latter is supposed to be placed, first horizontally, and then vertically.

  282. Reading φωνῇ and placing the comma after ἀκοήν.

  283. Compare infra, 53 A.

  284. Putting the comma after μᾶλλον δὲ; or, following Stallbaum and omitting the comma, “or rather, before entering on this probable discussion, we will begin again, and try to speak of each thing and of all.”

  285. Or, “since in its very intention it is not self-existent”⁠—which, though obscure, avoids any inaccuracy of construction.

  286. Compare 65 C, 66 C.

  287. The text seems to be corrupt.

  288. Omitting ὕστερα.

  289. Putting a colon after εὐπαράγωγον and reading αἰσθήσει δἐ ἀλόγῳ.

  290. Reading ἅμμα.

  291. Reading χλοῶδες.

  292. Reading αὐτό for αὗ τὸ and ἄμα for αἷμα.

  293. Supra, 33 A.

  294. Reading ξυνδνάζοντες (conj. Hermann).

  295. Or reading ποιητοῦ⁠—“of his maker.”

  296. Compare supra, footnote.

  297. “Timaeus” 27 A.

  298. Compare “Politicus” 271 and following.

  299. Compare Aristotle Metaphysics I 1, § 16.

  300. Reading ἑκατέρου πρὸς τὴν χρῆσιν.

  301. Reading αὐτῶν.

  302. Omitting ὀν.

  303. Or, “to remit something of existence in relation to not-being.”

  304. Reading with the Bodleian MS. ἢ αὐτοὶ ὑπ’ ἄλλων πεισθέντες.

  305. In allusion to a book of Protagoras’ which bore this title.

  306. Compare “Cratylus” 401 E and following.

  307. Reading τοῦτο δὲ κίνησις.

  308. Reading ἐπὶ πολύ.

  309. Reading with the MSS. ᾧ παραμετρούμεθα.

  310. In allusion to the well-known line of Euripides, Hippolytus 612: ἡ γλῶσσ’ ὸμώμοχ’, ἡ δὲ φρὴν ἀνώμοτος.

  311. Reading ὁτιοῦν or ὁτῳοῦν and omitting χρῶμα.

  312. Or perhaps, reading ὅπαρ, “in our waking state.”

  313. “Lysis” 216 A; “Phaedo” 90 B, 101 E; Republic V, 453 E and following.

  314. Reading ἀληθεῖς, but! Compare supra 167 A: ταῦτα δὲ ἀεὶ ἀληθῆ.

  315. Reading προσήρκεσα.

  316. Reading αὐτοῦ τῶν λόγων.

  317. Reading δή.

  318. Reading φοράγ: Lib. περιφοράν.

  319. Both words in Greek are called ἕτερον: compare “Parmenides” 147 C; “Euthydemus” 301 A.

  320. Reading κατὰ δικαστήρια: an emendation suggested by Professor Campbell.

  321. Reading οὐδ’ ἕν.

  322. Twelfth Night, Act IV, Sc. 2: “Clown: For as the old hermit of Prague, that never saw pen and ink, very wittily said to a niece of King Gorboduc, ‘That that is is’⁠ ⁠… for what is ‘that’ but ‘that,’ and ‘is’ but ‘is’?”

  323. Compare “Parmenides,” 137 and following.

  324. Omitting χειρωτικῆς and πεζοθηρίας.

  325. Reading δἰνειν, a conjecture of Professor Campbell’s.

  326. Or, “although there is no other vice in the soul but this.”

  327. Omitting δίκη, or reading δίκῃ.

  328. Reading τοῦτο φανῇ.

  329. Reading with the MSS. καὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτὸ ἓν ὄν.

  330. Reading τὸ ὄν.

  331. Reading with Professor Campbell δικαιοσύνης ἕξει καὶ φρονήσεως.

  332. Reading δρᾶν ἱκανῶς αὐτά (? αὐτό).

  333. Compare supra, 252.

  334. Reading τοῦτο φανῇ.

  335. Reading τὸν δή.

  336. Compare “Theaetetus” 143 E.

  337. Compare “Meno” 82 ff.

  338. Plato is here introducing a new subdivision, i.e. that of bipeds into men and birds. Others however refer the passage to the division into quadrupeds and bipeds, making pigs compete with human beings and the pig-driver with the king. According to this explanation we must translate the words above, “freest and airiest of creation,” “worthiest and laziest of creation.”

  339. Compare “Sophist” 227 B.

  340. Compare Republic VI 507 A.

  341. Reading εἴ τις τὢν ἄλλων τῳ.

  342. Compare supra, 267 C, D.

  343. Reading ὄσα δὲ τῆς διακριτικῆς ἦν αὐτόθι, μεθιῶμεν ξύμπαντα.

  344. Reading ταχύτητας.

  345. Compare “Phaedrus” 250 D, E.

  346. Compare “Phaedrus” 265 E.

  347. Or, taking the words in a different context, “As not having political power⁠—I say another class, because not like an instrument,” etc.

  348. Compare supra, 259 A.

  349. Compare supra, 287⁠–⁠90, 303⁠–⁠5.

  350. There appears to be some confusion in this passage. There is no difficulty in seeing that in comedy, as in tragedy, the spectator may view the performance with mixed feelings of pain as well as of pleasure; nor is there any difficulty in understanding that envy is a mixed feeling, which rejoices not without pain at the misfortunes of others, and laughs at their ignorance of themselves. But Plato seems to think further that he has explained the feeling of the spectator in comedy sufficiently by a theory which only applies to comedy in so far as in comedy we laugh at the conceit or weakness of others. He has certainly given a very partial explanation of the ridiculous.

  351. Mill’s Utilitarianism.

  352. Probably corrupt.

  353. I.e. into the infinite number of individuals.

  354. Or, “maintain in accordance with our previous statements”: but cf. supra 28 D, and infra 30 D.

  355. Reading with the MSS. κινήσει.

  356. Reading περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐν αἶς ψυχὴ σώματι τἀναντία ξυμβάλλεται.

  357. Reading τὸ τοἰτον ἔτ’ ἐρῶ (conj. Badham).

  358. Reading ὅσοι.

  359. Reading αὐτῶν ἡμῶν.

  360. Reading ἐπιστήμαις, τὰς δὲ κ.τ.λ.

  361. Oratio ad Philippum missa,” p. 84: Τὸ μὲν ταῖς πανηγύρεσιν ἐνοχλεῖν καὶ πρὸς ἅπαντας λέγειν τοὺς συντρέχοντας ἐν αὐταῖς πρὸς οὐδένα λέγειν ἐστὶν, ἀλλ’ ὁμοίως οἱ τοιοῦτοι τῶν λόγων (sc. speeches in the assembly) ἄκυροι τυγχάνουσιν ὄντες τοῖς νόμοις καὶ ταῖς πολιτείαις ταῖς ὑπὸ τῶν σοφιστῶν γεγραμμέναις.

  362. Οὐ γέγονε κρείττων νομοθέτης τοῦ πλουσίου
    Ἀριστονίκου· τίθησι γὰρ νυνὶ νόμον,
    τῶν ἰχθυοπωλῶν ὅστις ἂν πωλῶν τινὶ
    ἰχθὺν ὑποτιμήσας ἀποδῶτ’ ἐλάττονος
    ἧς εἶπε τιμῆς, εἰς τὸ δεσμωτήριον
    εὐθὺς ἀπάγεσθαι τοῦτον, ἵνα δεδοικότες
    τῆς ἀξίας ἀγαπῶσιν, ἢ τῆς ἑσπέρας
    σαπροὺς ἅπαντας ἀποφέρωσιν οἴκαδε.

    —⁠Meineke, Fragmenta comicorum Graecorum vol. III p. 438

  363. This is not proved by VIII 847 E, as Hermann supposes (De vestigiis, etc., p. 29).

  364. I.e., it ranks after justice, temperance, and wisdom.

  365. Some word, such as ἀρετῆς or πολιτείας, seems to have fallen out.

  366. χορός, erroneously connected with χαίρειν.

  367. Compare “Euthyphro” 6, and following; Republic II 378; III 388, 408 C.

  368. Supra, 653 D, E.

  369. Compare infra, VII 813, 814.

  370. Compare I 642 D.

  371. Works and Days, ll. 40, 41.

  372. Compare Aristotle Politics I 2, §§ 6, 7.

  373. Odyssey IX 112, and following

  374. Reading αἱρέσεις: but?

  375. Iliad XX 216, and following

  376. Omitting ἐνθεαστικόν.

  377. Compare supra, 682 D, E.

  378. Compare infra, V 736 C.

  379. Compare supra, I 625.

  380. Compare infra, VI 756 E; Aristotle Politics II 6, § 18.

  381. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 2, § 10.

  382. Compare supra, 689 D.

  383. Compare Republic III 397 following.

  384. Compare Aristotle Politics VIII 6.

  385. Compare Republic IV 424 E.

  386. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 6, §§ 1⁠–⁠4.

  387. Supra III 679 B.

  388. Compare I 625 D.

  389. Compare II 661.

  390. Compare supra, III 696 D.

  391. Compare V 746 A.

  392. Compare Aristotle Politics II 6, § 17.

  393. Compare “Statesman” 271.

  394. Supra, III 691.

  395. νόμος = νοῦ διανομή.

  396. Supra, 712 C.

  397. Republic I 338, II 367.

  398. Supra, III 690 B.

  399. Or:⁠—“for a man of your age you have a keen sight.”

  400. Compare “Cratylus” 386 A following; “Theaetetus” 152 A.

  401. Works and Days, 287 sqq.

  402. II 656 following

  403. Compare supra, 717 E.

  404. Compare supra, 718.

  405. Compare Republic II 382.

  406. Compare “Statesman” 309 A, B.

  407. Compare supra, III 684 D, E.

  408. Reading ὑπάρχει.

  409. Compare Republic V 462 following.

  410. Compare infra, XI 923⁠–⁠926.

  411. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 16, § 15.

  412. Supra, 740, 741.

  413. Compare Aristotle Politics II 6, § 15.

  414. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 10, § 11.

  415. Compare Aristotle Politics II 6, § 15.

  416. Compare Republic VII 526 B.

  417. Compare Aristotle Politics II 6, § 16.

  418. Reading πρὸ πασῶν.

  419. Compare supra, 755 C.

  420. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 5, § 3.

  421. Reading δέξιν.

  422. Compare infra, VIII 843 D.

  423. Compare supra, I 633 C.

  424. Aristotle Politics I 2, §§ 15, 16.

  425. Compare infra, IX 853 following; XII 956 following.

  426. Compare “Timaeus” 39, 47 A.

  427. Compare Republic V 459 E.

  428. Compare supra, 770 B.

  429. Compare supra, IV 721, and Aristotle Politics VII 16, § 9.

  430. Supra, IV 723 C.

  431. Compare Statesman, 306 following.

  432. Supra, IV 721.

  433. Compare supra, V 742 C.

  434. Reading with Stallbaum, διδάσκειν.

  435. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 10, § 13.

  436. Compare Aristotle Politics I 13, § 14.

  437. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 12, § 3.

  438. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 11, § 8.

  439. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 11, § 6.

  440. Compare supra, I 625, 633.

  441. Aristotle Politics I 13, §§ 15, 16.

  442. Compare III supra, 676.

  443. Reading ὅτι and ἐτόλμων.

  444. Compare Republic V 459.

  445. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 17, § 2.

  446. Compare Republic V 449 E.

  447. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 17, § 2.

  448. Compare Republic III 386 A.

  449. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 17, § 6.

  450. Compare Republic X 619 A.

  451. Compare supra, 788 A.

  452. VI 777 D, E.

  453. VI 784 A.

  454. Compare Republic II 376 E; III 403, 410.

  455. Compare infra, 814 D.

  456. Compare “Critias” 110 B.

  457. Compare supra, II 673.

  458. Compare Republic IV 424 C.

  459. Compare supra, II 655 D following.

  460. Compare Republic IV 424.

  461. Compare supra, III 700 B.

  462. Compare supra, V 741 E.

  463. Compare supra, VI 764 C.

  464. Compare supra, VI 765 D.

  465. Compare Republic X 607 A.

  466. Compare Aristotle Politics VIII 6, § 8; 7, § 7.

  467. Compare supra, I 644 D, E.

  468. Compare supra, I 628.

  469. Homer, Odyssey III 26 following.

  470. Compare supra, VI 764, 779.

  471. Compare Aristotle Politics VIII 1, §§ 3, 4.

  472. Compare Republic V 451 following.

  473. Compare supra, VI 781 B; Aristotle Politics I 13, §§ 15, 16.

  474. Supra, 799 C.

  475. Compare Republic V 465 D, 466 A.

  476. Compare supra, VI 766 A.

  477. Compare supra, V 747.

  478. Compare infra, VIII 828.

  479. Compare infra, VIII 829 C.

  480. Compare supra, II 664 following.

  481. Compare Republic III 397.

  482. Compare supra, 799.

  483. Compare supra, VI 764 C.

  484. Compare “Cratylus” 388 E following.

  485. Compare Republic III 398 A; X 607 A.

  486. Compare infra, XII 967.

  487. Compare Republic VII 522.

  488. Compare Republic 523, 524, 525, etc.

  489. Compare Republic VII 519.

  490. Compare Republic 528.

  491. Compare Republic VII 527 following.

  492. Compare supra, VI 770, and Republic V 458 C.

  493. Compare “Cratylus” 403; Republic III 386.

  494. I.e. the director of education.

  495. Compare Republic III 403 E.

  496. Compare Republic VI 491 E, 495 B.

  497. Compare supra, IV 712 E, 715 B.

  498. Compare Aristotle Politics V 11, §§ 5, 13.

  499. Compare supra, I 625 D.

  500. Omitting ἐν, a conjecture of Winkelmann.

  501. Compare III 693 B; IV 705 E; VI 770; XII 963 A.

  502. Compare “Phaedrus” 251.

  503. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 10, § 10.

  504. Compare supra, VI 761 D, E.

  505. Reading παιδιάν.

  506. Compare infra, XI 913.

  507. Compare supra, VI 759 C.

  508. Compare Republic III 397 E.

  509. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 9, § 7.

  510. Compare Aristotle Politics II 10, § 8.

  511. Compare supra, V 738 C.

  512. Compare supra, 745.

  513. Compare infra, XI 915 D.

  514. Compare “Protagoras” 323 D following; “Gorgias” 525.

  515. Compare “Statesman” 308 E.

  516. Compare infra, XI 933 E; XII 941.

  517. Compare supra, IV 720.

  518. Compare Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics III cc. 1⁠–⁠5; V c. 8.

  519. Compare Republic IV 430 E; supra, I 626 E, following.

  520. Compare supra, VI 759.

  521. Compare supra, 855 C.

  522. Compare supra, 870 D.

  523. Compare Aristotle Politics I 2, § 15.

  524. Compare supra, III 691; IV 711 E, 713 C, 716 A.

  525. Compare “Statesman,” 297 A.

  526. Compare supra, V 734 E; VI 770.

  527. Compare Republic V 465 A.

  528. Compare supra, VI 760 B.

  529. Compare supra, IV 718 following.

  530. Compare Republic II 364.

  531. Compare Republic II 378 following.

  532. Reading λέγοιμεν.

  533. Compare “Apology,” 26 following.

  534. Compare supra, IV 719 E following; IX 857⁠–⁠8.

  535. Compare “Gorgias” 483.

  536. Compare “Timaeus” 46 D.

  537. Compare “Timaeus” 89 A.

  538. Compare “Phaedrus” 245 D.

  539. Compare Republic VII 515.

  540. Compare infra, XII 966, 967.

  541. Compare Republic II 364 A.

  542. Compare supra, 899 B.

  543. Hesiod, Works and Days, 307.

  544. Compare “Timaeus” 42 A.

  545. Compare “Phaedo” 62.

  546. Reading μὴ πρὸς τὸ ὅλον.

  547. Compare “Timaeus” 42 B, C.

  548. Reading τοῦ ποίου.

  549. Homer Odyssey XIX 43.

  550. Reading λῆμα.

  551. Compare Republic II 365 E.

  552. Compare infra, XII 951, 961.

  553. Compare Republic II 364.

  554. Compare supra, VI 760.

  555. Compare supra, VIII 850.

  556. Compare infra, XII 952 E.

  557. Compare supra, VIII 849 E.

  558. Compare Aristotle Politics I 9, §§ 1⁠–⁠11.

  559. Placing a comma after ἐλεύθεροι.

  560. Reading, according to Schneider, ὃς τούτοις αὗ.

  561. Compare supra, 924 C.

  562. Compare supra, IX 865 E.

  563. Or, “as if he were making a contribution.”

  564. Reading εἰ μὲν μή.

  565. Or, “who are intermediate in age”:⁠—i.e. who are neither the youngest nor the oldest guardians of the law.

  566. Compare supra, VI 784 A following; VII 794.

  567. I.e. they are cases of murder: compare supra, IX 870 following.

  568. Putting the comma after ἀλλοτρίᾳ.

  569. Compare Republic III 394; X 606; Aristotle Politics VII 17, § 11.

  570. The text is probably corrupt.

  571. Compare “Gorgias” 463 A.

  572. Compare Republic III 388 C, 391 D.

  573. This passage is not consistent with IX 857 A, where theft of public property is punished by imprisonment.

  574. Compare Thucydides V 66.

  575. Compare supra, VII 796 B.

  576. Reading αἰδοίη.

  577. Compare “Timaeus” 90 E.

  578. Compare Republic IV 422 E.

  579. Compare “Timaeus” 40 D.

  580. Compare supra, IV 704 E.

  581. Compare Republic X 619.

  582. Compare supra, 947.

  583. Compare supra, XI 915 D.

  584. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 6, § 5.

  585. Compare supra, 950 A, B.

  586. Compare supra, VI 766; IX 853 following.

  587. Compare supra, VII 811 D.

  588. Compare supra, IX 855 B.

  589. Compare “Phaedo” 63 B.

  590. Compare supra, IV 717 E, 719.

  591. Compare Republic X 620 E.

  592. Reading ἀπεργαζομένων with the MSS. and as in the text, not as in the notes of Stallbaum. The construction is harsh; but ἀπεικασμένα may be taken as if in apposition with the previous sentence. With τἧ may be supplied δυνάμει, and ἀπεργαζομένων may be regarded as a “genitive absolute.”

  593. Compare Laches 196 D.

  594. Compare Republic VII 537 B.

  595. Compare supra, X 893 A.

  596. Compare supra, X 896 C.

  597. Compare Republic X 607.

  598. Compare Republic VII 531 following.

  599. Compare Republic IX 592.

  600. Compare “Gorgias” 448 A.

  601. Compare “Gorgias” 499, 505; Republic VI 487.

  602. Compare “Symposium” 213 C.

  603. Compare “Symposium” 217 E and following.

  604. Compare “Symposium” 181 E.

  605. About £406.

  606. Compare Republic I 332 following.

  607. Compare Aristotle Politics VII 1. § 5.

  608. Compare Aristotle Politics I 5. § 7.

  609. I 9, 30; III 14, 11.

  610. Thucydides II 35⁠–⁠46.

  611. Reading οὐ κεῖνται, or taking οὐκ before ἀναιρεθέντες with κεῖνται.

  612. Compare Aristotle, Politics V 10, § 17.

  613. Compare Republic X 619 C.

  614. Homer Odyssey I 32.

  615. The author of these lines, which are probably of Pythagorean origin, is unknown. They are found also in the Anthology (Anthologia Palatina 10. 108).

  616. These words are omitted in several MSS.

  617. The reading is here uncertain.

  618. Some words appear to have dropped out here.

  619. Euripides, Antiope, fr. 20 (Dindorf).

  620. Or, reading πολυμάθειαν, “abundant learning.”

  621. A fragment from the pseudo-Homeric poem, “Margites.”

  622. The Homeric word μάργος is said to be here employed in allusion to the quotation from the “Margites” which Socrates has just made; but it is not used in the sense which it has in Homer.

  623. Compare Republic VI 487.

  624. Compare Aristotle Politics I 9. §§ 10, 14.