1. This individual having personated Peter III, the deceased husband of the Empress, raised the Orenburg Cossacks in revolt. This revolt was not suppressed without extensive destruction of life and property.

  2. Translated in Russian Romance, by Mrs. Telfer, 1875.

  3. Written in 1823 at Kishineff and Odessa.

  4. Ruslan and Liudmila, the title of Pushkin’s first important work, written 1817⁠–⁠20. It is a tale relating the adventures of the knight-errant Ruslan in search of his fair lady Liudmila, who has been carried off by a kaldoon, or magician.

  5. Written in Bessarabia.

  6. In Russia foreign tutors and governesses are commonly styled “monsieur” or “madame.”

  7. Referring to Tomi, the reputed place of exile of Ovid. Pushkin, then residing in Bessarabia, was in the same predicament as his predecessor in song, though he certainly did not plead guilty to the fact, since he remarks in his ode to Ovid:

    To exile self-consigned,
    With self, society, existence, discontent,
    I visit in these days, with melancholy mind,
    The country whereunto a mournful age thee sent.

    Ovid thus enumerates the causes which brought about his banishment:

    “Perdiderint quum me duo crimina, carmen et error,
    Alterius facti culpa silenda mihi est.”

    Ovidii Nasonis Tristium, lib. ii 207.

  8. Les Aventures du Chevalier de Faublas, a romance of a loose character by Jean Baptiste Louvet de Couvray, b. 1760, d. 1797, famous for his bold oration denouncing Robespierre, Marat and Danton.

  9. À la “Bolívar,” from the founder of Bolivian independence.

  10. M. Bréguet, a celebrated Parisian watchmaker⁠—hence a slang term for a watch.

  11. Talon, a famous St. Petersburg restaurateur.

  12. Paul Petròvitch Kavèrine, a friend for whom Pushkin in his youth appears to have entertained great respect and admiration. He was an officer in the Hussars of the Guard, and a noted “dandy” and man about town. The poet on one occasion addressed the following impromptu to his friend’s portrait:

    “Within him daily see the fires of punch and war,
    Upon the fields of Mars a gallant warrior,
    A faithful friend to friends, of ladies torturer,
    But ever the Hussar.”

  13. Denis Von Wisine (1741⁠–⁠92), a favourite Russian dramatist. His first comedy The Brigadier, procured him the favour of the second Catherine. His best, however, is the Minor (Niedorosl). Prince Potemkin, after witnessing it, summoned the author, and greeted him with the exclamation, “Die now, Denis!” In fact, his subsequent performances were not of equal merit.

    • Jacob Borissovitch Kniajnine (1742⁠–⁠91), a clever adapter of French tragedy.

    • Simeonova, a celebrated tragic actress, who retired from the stage in early life and married a Prince Gagarine.

    • Ozeroff, one of the best-known Russian dramatists of the period; he possessed more originality than Kniajnine. Oedipus in Athens, Fingal, Demetrius Donskoi, and Polyxena, are the best known of his tragedies.

    • Katènine translated Corneille’s tragedies into Russian.

    • Didelot, sometime Director of the ballet at the Opera at St. Petersburg.

  14. Istòmina⁠—A celebrated Circassian dancer of the day, with whom the poet in his extreme youth imagined himself in love.

  15. In Russia large fires are lighted in winter time in front of the theatres for the benefit of the menials, who, considering the state of the thermometer, cannot be said to have a jovial time of it. But in this, as in other cases, “habit” alleviates their lot, and they bear the cold with a wonderful equanimity.

  16. “Tout le monde sut qu’il (Grimm) mettait du blanc; et moi, qui n’en croyait rien, je commençai de le croire, non seulement par l’embellissement de son teint, et pour avoir trouvé des tasses de blanc sur la toilette, mais sur ce qu’entrant un matin dans sa chambre, je le trouvais brossant ses ongles avec une petite vergette faite exprès, ouvrage qu’il continua fièrement devant moi. Je jugeai qu’un homme qui passe deux heures tous les matins à brosser ses ongles peut bien passer quelques instants à remplir de blanc les creux de sa peau.”

    Confessions de J. J. Rousseau

  17. Refers to Dictionary of the Academy, compiled during the reign of Catherine II under the supervision of Lomonossoff.

  18. Elvine, or Elvina, was not improbably the owner of the seductive feet apostrophized by the poet, since, in 1816, he wrote an ode, “To Her,” which commences thus:

    “Elvina, my dear, come, give me thine hand,” and so forth.

  19. I.e. the milkmaid from the Okhta villages, a suburb of St. Petersburg on the right bank of the Neva chiefly inhabited by the labouring classes.

  20. Apropos of this somewhat ungallant sentiment, a Russian scholiast remarks:⁠—“The whole of this ironical stanza is but a refined eulogy of the excellent qualities of our countrywomen. Thus Boileau, in the guise of invective, eulogizes Louis XIV. Russian ladies unite in their persons great acquirements, combined with amiability and strict morality; also a species of Oriental charm which so much captivated Madame de Stael.” It will occur to most that the apologist of the Russian fair “doth protest too much.” The poet in all probability wrote the offending stanza in a fit of Byronic “spleen,” as he would most likely himself have called it. Indeed, since Byron, poets of his school seem to assume this virtue if they have it not, and we take their utterances under its influence for what they are worth.

  21. The midsummer nights in the latitude of St. Petersburg are a prolonged twilight.

  22. Refers to Mouravieff’s Goddess of the Neva. At St. Petersburg the banks of the Neva are lined throughout with splendid granite quays.

  23. A street running parallel to the Neva, and leading from the Winter Palace to the Summer Palace and Garden.

  24. The strong influence exercised by Byron’s genius on the imagination of Pushkin is well known. Shakespeare and other English dramatists had also their share in influencing his mind, which, at all events in its earlier developments, was of an essentially imitative type. As an example of his Shakespearian tastes, see his poem of Angelo, founded upon Measure for Measure.

  25. The poet was, on his mother’s side, of African extraction, a circumstance which perhaps accounts for the southern fervour of his imagination. His great-grandfather, Abraham Petròvitch Hannibal, was seized on the coast of Africa when eight years of age by a corsair, and carried a slave to Constantinople. The Russian Ambassador bought and presented him to Peter the Great who caused him to be baptized at Vilnius. Subsequently one of Hannibal’s brothers made his way to Constantinople and thence to St. Petersburg for the purpose of ransoming him; but Peter would not surrender his godson who died at the age of ninety-two, having attained the rank of general in the Russian service.

  26. Refers to two of the most interesting productions of the poet. The former line indicates the Prisoner of the Caucasus, the latter, The Fountain of Baktchiserai. The Salguir is a river of the Crimea.

  27. Odessa, December 1823.

  28. The barshtchina was the corvée, or forced labour of three days per week rendered previous to the emancipation of 1861 by the serfs to their lord.

    The obrok was a species of poll-tax paid by a serf, either in lieu of the forced labour or in consideration of being permitted to exercise a trade or profession elsewhere. Very heavy obroks have at times been levied on serfs possessed of skill or accomplishments, or who had amassed wealth; and circumstances may be easily imagined which, under such a system, might lead to great abuses.

  29. The neighbours complained of Onegin’s want of courtesy. He always replied da or nyet, yes or no, instead of das or nyets⁠—the final s being a contraction of sudar or sudarinia, i.e. sir or madam.

  30. From the lay of the Russalka, i.e. mermaid of the Dnieper.

  31. The Russian annotator remarks: “The most euphonious Greek names, e.g. Agathon, Philotas, Theodora, Thekla, etc., are used amongst us by the lower classes only.”

  32. The serfs destined for military service used to have a portion of their heads shaved as a distinctive mark.

  33. The foregoing stanza requires explanation. Russian pancakes or blini are consumed vigorously by the lower orders during the Carnival. At other times it is difficult to procure them, at any rate in the large towns.

    The Russian peasants are childishly fond of whirligigs, which are also much in vogue during the Carnival.

    “Christmas Carols” is not an exact equivalent for the Russian phrase. Podbliudni pessni, are literally “dish songs,” or songs used with dishes (of water) during the sviatki or Holy Nights, which extend from Christmas to Twelfth Night, for purposes of divination. Reference will again be made to this superstitious practice, which is not confined to Russia. See Note 62.

    “Song and dance,” the well-known khorovod, in which the dance proceeds to vocal music.

    “Lovage,” the Levisticum officinalis, is a hardy plant growing very far north, though an inhabitant of our own kitchen gardens. The passage containing the reference to the three tears and Trinity Sunday was at first deemed irreligious by the Russian censors, and consequently expunged.

    Kvass is of various sorts: there is the common kvass of fermented rye used by the peasantry, and the more expensive kvass of the restaurants, iced and flavoured with various fruits.

    The final two lines refer to the Tchin, or Russian social hierarchy. There are fourteen grades in the Tchin assigning relative rank and precedence to the members of the various departments of the State, civil, military, naval, court, scientific and educational. The military and naval grades from the 14th up to the 7th confer personal nobility only, whilst above the 7th hereditary rank is acquired. In the remaining departments, civil or otherwise, personal nobility is only attained with the 9th grade, hereditary with the 4th.

  34. A play upon the word venetz, crown, which also signifies a nimbus or glory, and is the symbol of marriage from the fact of two gilt crowns being held over the heads of the bride and bridegroom during the ceremony. The literal meaning of the passage is therefore: his earthly marriage was dissolved and a heavenly one was contracted.

  35. The fortress of Otchakoff was taken by storm on the 18th December 1788 by a Russian army under Prince Potemkin. Thirty thousand Turks are said to have perished during the assault and ensuing massacre.

  36. Odessa and Mikhailovskoe, 1824.

  37. “Svetlana,” a short poem by Joukóvski, upon which his fame mainly rests. Joukóvski was an unblushing plagiarist. Many eminent English poets have been laid under contribution by him, often without going through the form of acknowledging the source of inspiration. Even the poem in question cannot be pronounced entirely original, though its intrinsic beauty is unquestionable. It undoubtedly owes its origin to Burger’s poem “Leonora,” which has found so many English translators. Not content with a single development of Burger’s ghastly production the Russian poet has directly paraphrased “Leonora” under its own title, and also written a poem “Liudmila” in imitation of it. The principal outlines of these three poems are as follows: A maiden loses her lover in the wars; she murmurs at Providence and is vainly reproved for such blasphemy by her mother. Providence at length loses patience and sends her lover’s spirit, to all appearances as if in the flesh, who induces the unfortunate maiden to elope. Instead of riding to a church or bridal chamber the unpleasant bridegroom resorts to the graveyard and repairs to his own grave, from which he has recently issued to execute his errand. It is a repulsive subject. “Svetlana,” however, is more agreeable than its prototype “Leonora,” inasmuch as the whole catastrophe turns out a dream brought on by “sorcery,” during the sviatki or Holy Nights (see Canto V st. x), and the dreamer awakes to hear the tinkling of her lover’s sledge approaching. “Svetlana” has been translated by Sir John Bowring.

  38. The heroes of two romances much in vogue in Pushkin’s time: the former by Madame Cottin, the latter by the famous Madame Krudener. The frequent mention in the course of this poem of romances once enjoying a European celebrity but now consigned to oblivion, will impress the reader with the transitory nature of merely mediocre literary reputation. One has now to search for the very names of most of the popular authors of Pushkin’s day and rummage biographical dictionaries for the dates of their births and deaths. Yet the poet’s prime was but fifty years ago, and had he lived to a ripe old age he would have been amongst us still. He was four years younger than the late Mr. Thomas Carlyle. The decadence of Richardson’s popularity amongst his countrymen is a fact familiar to all.

  39. Referring to Richardson’s Clarissa Harlowe, La Nouvelle Heloise, and Madame de Stael’s Delphine.

  40. Melmoth, a romance by Maturin, and Jean Sbogar, by Ch. Nodier. The Vampire, a tale published in 1819, was erroneously attributed to Lord Byron. Salathiel; The Eternal Jew, a romance by Geo. Croly.

  41. A young married couple amongst Russian peasants reside in the house of the bridegroom’s father till the tiaglo, or family circle is broken up by his death.

  42. Marriages amongst Russian serfs used formerly to take place at ridiculously early ages. Haxthausen asserts that strong hearty peasant women were to be seen at work in the fields with their infant husbands in their arms. The inducement lay in the fact that the tiaglo (see note 41) received an additional lot of the communal land for every male added to its number, though this could have formed an inducement in the southern and fertile provinces of Russia only, as it is believed that agriculture in the north is so unremunerative that land has often to be forced upon the peasants, in order that the taxes, for which the whole Commune is responsible to Government, may be paid. The abuse of early marriages was regulated by Tsar Nicholas.

  43. Courtships were not unfrequently carried on in the larger villages, which alone could support such an individual, by means of a svakha, or matchmaker. In Russia unmarried girls wear their hair in a single long plait or tail, kossa; the married women, on the other hand, in two, which are twisted into the headgear.

  44. It is thus that I am compelled to render a female garment not known, so far as I am aware, to Western Europe. It is called by the natives doushegreika, that is to say, “warmer of the soul”⁠—in French, chaufferette de l’âme. It is a species of thick pelisse worn over the “sarafan,” or gown.

  45. A Russian annotator complains that the poet has mutilated Dante’s famous line.

  46. It is well known that until the reign of the late Tsar French was the language of the Russian court and of Russian fashionable society. It should be borne in mind that at the time this poem was written literary warfare more or less open was being waged between two hostile schools of Russian men of letters. These consisted of the “Arzamass,” or French school, to which Pushkin himself together with his uncle Vassili Pushkin the “Nestor of the Arzamass” belonged, and their opponents who devoted themselves to the cultivation of the vernacular.

  47. The Blago-Namièrenni, or Well-Wisher, was an inferior Russian newspaper of the day, much scoffed at by contemporaries. The editor once excused himself for some gross error by pleading that he had been “on the loose.”

  48. Hippolyte Bogdanovitch⁠—b. 1743, d. 1803⁠—though possessing considerable poetical talent was like many other Russian authors more remarkable for successful imitation than for original genius. His most remarkable production is Dóushenka, “The Darling,” a composition somewhat in the style of La Fontaine’s Psyche. Its merit consists in graceful phraseology, and a strong pervading sense of humour.

  49. Parny⁠—a French poet of the era of the first Napoleon, b. 1753, d. 1814. Introduced to the aged Voltaire during his last visit to Paris, the patriarch laid his hands upon the youth’s head and exclaimed: “Mon cher Tibulle.” He is chiefly known for his erotic poetry which attracted the affectionate regard of the youthful Pushkin when a student at the Lyceum. We regret to add that, having accepted a pension from Napoleon, Parny forthwith proceeded to damage his literary reputation by inditing an “epic” poem entitled “Goddam! Goddam! par un French⁠—Dog.” It is descriptive of the approaching conquest of Britain by Napoleon, and treats the embryo enterprise as if already conducted to a successful conclusion and become matter of history. A good account of the bard and his creations will be found in the Saturday Review of the 2nd August 1879.

  50. Evgeny Baratynski, a contemporary of Pushkin and a lyric poet of some originality and talent. The “Feasts” is a short brilliant poem in praise of conviviality. Pushkin is therein praised as the best of companions “beside the bottle.”

  51. The samovar, i.e. “self-boiler,” is merely an urn for hot water having a fire in the centre. We may observe a similar contrivance in our own old-fashioned tea-urns which are provided with a receptacle for a red-hot iron cylinder in centre. The teapot is usually placed on the top of the samovar.

  52. Mikhailovskoe, 1825.

  53. Count Tolstoy, a celebrated artist who subsequently became Vice-President of the Academy of Arts at St. Petersburg. Baratynski, see Note 50.

  54. Yazykoff, a poet contemporary with Pushkin. He was an author of promise⁠—unfulfilled.

  55. Stanza left unfinished by the author.

  56. The Abbe de Pradt: b. 1759, d. 1837. A political pamphleteer of the French Revolution: was at first an émigré, but made his peace with Napoleon and was appointed Archbishop of Malines.

  57. Mikhailovskoe, 1825⁠–⁠6.

  58. The kibitka, properly speaking, whether on wheels or runners, is a vehicle with a hood not unlike a big cradle.

  59. The allusions in the foregoing stanza are in the first place to a poem entitled “The First Snow,” by Prince Viazemski and secondly to “Eda,” by Baratynski, a poem descriptive of life in Finland.

  60. The Russian clergy are divided into two classes: the white or secular, which is made up of the mass of parish priests, and the black who inhabit the monasteries, furnish the high dignitaries of the Church, and constitute that swarm of useless drones for whom Peter the Great felt such a deep repugnance.

  61. Refers to the Sviatki or Holy Nights between Christmas Eve and Twelfth Night. Divination, or the telling of fortunes by various expedients, is the favourite pastime on these occasions.

  62. During the sviatki it is a common custom for the girls to assemble around a table on which is placed a dish or basin of water which contains a ring. Each in her turn extracts the ring from the basin whilst the remainder sing in chorus the podbliudni pessni, or “dish songs” before mentioned. These are popularly supposed to indicate the fortunes of the immediate holder of the ring. The first-named lines foreshadow death; the latter, the kashourka, or “kitten song,” indicates approaching marriage. It commences thus: “The cat asked the kitten to sleep on the stove.”

  63. The superstition is that the name of the future husband may thus be discovered.

  64. See Note 37.

  65. Lel, in Slavonic mythology, corresponds to the Morpheus of the Latins. The word is evidently connected with the verb leleyat to fondle or soothe, likewise with our own word “to lull.”

  66. Malvina, a romance by Madame Cottin.

  67. The above three lines are a parody on the turgid style of Lomonossoff, a literary man of the second Catherine’s era.

  68. Pushkin calls Bouyànoff his cousin because he is a character in the “Dangerous Neighbour,” a poem by Vassili Pushkin, the poet’s uncle.

  69. The “Donskoe Champanskoe” is a species of sparkling wine manufactured in the vicinity of the river Don.

  70. Francesco Albano, a celebrated painter, styled the “Anacreon of Painting,” was born at Bologna 1578, and died in the year 1666.

  71. Mikhailovskoe, 1826: the two final stanzas were, however, written at Moscow.

  72. Hospitality is a national virtue of the Russians. On festal occasions in the country the whole party is usually accommodated for the night, or indeed for as many nights as desired, within the house of the entertainer. This of course is rendered necessary by the great distances which separate the residences of the gentry. Still, the alacrity with which a Russian hostess will turn her house topsy-turvy for the accommodation of forty or fifty guests would somewhat astonish the mistress of a modern Belgravian mansion.

  73. There must be a peculiar appropriateness in this expression as descriptive of the sensation of extreme cold. Mr. Wallace makes use of an identical phrase in describing an occasion when he was frostbitten whilst sledging in Russia. He says (vol. i p. 33): “My fur cloak flew open, the cold seemed to grasp me in the region of the heart, and I fell insensible.”

  74. A line of Griboyédoff’s. (Woe from Wit)

  75. The fact of the above words being italicised suggests the idea that the poet is here firing a Parthian shot at some unfriendly critic.

  76. Lepage⁠—a celebrated gunmaker of former days.

  77. In Russia and other northern countries rude shoes are made of the inner bark of the lime tree.

  78. Written 1827⁠–⁠1828 at Moscow, Mikhailovskoe, St. Petersburg and Malinniki.

  79. Levshin⁠—a contemporary writer on political economy.

  80. The crown used in celebrating marriages in Russia according to the forms of the Eastern Church. See Note 34.

  81. The Russians not unfrequently adorn their apartments with effigies of the great Napoleon.

  82. Matushka, or “little mother,” a term of endearment in constant use amongst Russian females.

  83. In former times, and to some extent the practice still continues to the present day, Russian families were wont to travel with every necessary of life, and, in the case of the wealthy, all its luxuries following in their train. As the poet complains in a subsequent stanza there were no inns; and if the simple Làrinas required such ample store of creature comforts the impediments accompanying a great noble on his journeys may be easily conceived.

  84. This somewhat musty joke has appeared in more than one national costume. Most Englishmen, if we were to replace verst-posts with milestones and substitute a graveyard for a palisade, would instantly recognize its Yankee extraction. In Russia however its origin is as ancient at least as the reign of Catherine the Second. The witticism ran thus: A courier sent by Prince Potemkin to the Empress drove so fast that his sword, projecting from the vehicle, rattled against the verst-posts as if against a palisade!

  85. The aspect of Moscow, especially as seen from the Sparrow Hills, a low range bordering the river Moskva at a short distance from the city, is unique and splendid. It possesses several domes completely plated with gold and some twelve hundred spires most of which are surmounted by a golden cross. At the time of sunset they seem literally tipped with flame. It was from this memorable spot that Napoleon and the Grand Army first obtained a glimpse at the city of the Tsars. There are three hundred and seventy churches in Moscow. The Kremlin itself is however by far the most interesting object to the stranger.

  86. Napoleon on his arrival in Moscow on the 14th September took up his quarters in the Kremlin, but on the 16th had to remove to the Petrovski Palace or Castle on account of the conflagration which broke out in all quarters of the city. He however returned to the Kremlin on the 19th September. The Palace itself is placed in the midst of extensive grounds just outside the city, on the road to Tver, i.e. to the northwest. It is perhaps worthy of remark, as one amongst numerous circumstances proving how extensively the poet interwove his own life-experiences with the plot of this poem, that it was by this road that he himself must have been in the habit of approaching Moscow from his favourite country residence of Mikhailovskoe, in the province of Pskoff.

  87. The first line refers to the prevailing shape of the cast-iron handles which adorn the porte cochères. The Russians are fond of tame birds⁠—jackdaws, pigeons, starlings, etc., abound in Moscow and elsewhere.

  88. One of the obscure satirical allusions contained in this poem. Doubtless the joke was perfectly intelligible to the habitués of contemporary St. Petersburg society. Viazemski of course is the poet and prince, Pushkin’s friend.

  89. Many will consider this mode of bringing the canto to a conclusion of more than doubtful taste. The poet evidently aims a stroke at the pedantic and narrow-minded criticism to which original genius, emancipated from the strait-waistcoat of conventionality, is not unfrequently subjected.

  90. St. Petersburg, Boldino, Tsarskoe Selo, 1880⁠–⁠1881.

  91. This touching scene produced a lasting impression on Pushkin’s mind. It took place at a public examination at the Lyceum, on which occasion the boy poet produced a poem. The incident recalls the “Mon cher Tibulle” of Voltaire and the youthful Parny (see Note 49). Derjavine flourished during the reigns of Catherine the Second and Alexander the First. His poems are stiff and formal in style and are not much thought of by contemporary Russians. But a century back a very infinitesimal endowment of literary ability was sufficient to secure imperial reward and protection, owing to the backward state of the empire. Stanza II properly concludes with this line, the remainder having been expunged either by the author himself or the censors. I have filled up the void with lines from a fragment left by the author having reference to this canto.

  92. See Note 37, “Leonora,” a poem by Gottfried Augustus Burger, b. 1748, d. 1794.

  93. A romance by Maturin.

  94. The “Demon,” a short poem by Pushkin which at its first appearance created some excitement in Russian society. A more appropriate, or at any rate explanatory title, would have been the Tempter. It is descriptive of the first manifestation of doubt and cynicism in his youthful mind, allegorically as the visits of a “demon.” Russian society was moved to embody this imaginary demon in the person of a certain friend of Pushkin’s. This must not be confounded with Lermontoff’s poem bearing the same title upon which Rubinstein’s new opera, Il Demonio, is founded.

  95. Tchatzki, one of the principal characters in Griboyédoff’s celebrated comedy Woe from Wit (Gore ot Ouma).

  96. Shishkoff was a member of the literary school which cultivated the vernacular as opposed to the “Arzamass” or Gallic school, to which the poet himself and his uncle Vassili Pushkin belonged. He was admiral, author, and minister of education.

  97. On Palm Sunday the Russians carry branches, or used to do so. These branches were adorned with little painted pictures of cherubs with the ruddy complexions of tradition. Hence the comparison.

  98. Owing to the unstable nature of fame the names of some of the above literary worthies necessitate reference at this period in the nineteenth century.

    Johann Gottfried von Herder, b. 1744, d. 1803, a German philosopher, philanthropist and author, was the personal friend of Goethe and held the poet of court chaplain at Weimar. His chief work is entitled, Ideas for a Philosophy of the History of Mankind, in 4 vols.

    Sebastien Roch Nicholas Chamfort, b. 1741, d. 1794, was a French novelist and dramatist of the Revolution, who contrary to his real wishes became entangled in its meshes. He exercised a considerable influence over certain of its leaders, notably Mirabeau and Sièyès. He is said to have originated the title of the celebrated tract from the pen of the latter. “What is the Tiers Etat? Nothing. What ought it to be? Everything.” He ultimately experienced the common destiny in those days, was thrown into prison and though shortly afterwards released, his incarceration had such an effect upon his mind that he committed suicide.

    Marie François Xavier Bichat, b. 1771, d. 1802, a French anatomist and physiologist of eminence. His principal works are a Traité des Membranes, Anatomie générale appliquée à la Physiologie et à la Médecine, and Recherches Physiologiques sur la Vie et la Mort. He died at an early age from constant exposure to noxious exhalations during his researches.

    Pierre François Tissot, b. 1768, d. 1864, a French writer of the Revolution and Empire. In 1812 he was appointed by Napoleon editor of the Gazette de France. He wrote histories of the Revolution, of Napoleon and of France. He was likewise a poet and author of a work entitled Les trois Irlandais Conjurés, ou l’ombre d’Emmet, and is believed to have edited Foy’s History of the Peninsular War.

    The above catalogue by its heterogeneous composition gives a fair idea of the intellectual movement in Russia from the Empress Catherine the Second downwards. It is characterized by a feverish thirst for encyclopaedic knowledge without a corresponding power of assimilation.

  99. The celebrated Persian poet. Pushkin uses the passage referred to as an epigraph to the Fountain of Baktchiserai. It runs thus: “Many, even as I, visited that fountain, but some of these are dead and some have journeyed afar.” Saadi was born in 1189 at Shiraz and was a reputed descendant from Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law. In his youth he was a soldier, was taken prisoner by the Crusaders and forced to work in the ditches of Tripoli, whence he was ransomed by a merchant whose daughter he subsequently married. He did not commence writing till an advanced age. His principal work is the Gulistan, or “Rose Garden,” a work which has been translated into almost every European tongue.